This is my pharmacology video.
The 5 drugs I chose were Amoxicillin, Albuterol, Diazepam, Naloxone, Digoxin. The first is amoxicillin. Which is an antibiotic part of the penicillin family. The mechanism of action is that it inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis to cause defective cell wall and the cell to rupture and die. This drug is given orally. Popular labs are WBC count, this may lead to increased serum alkaline phosphatase, LDH, AST and ALT. It also gives a direct Coombs’ test a false positive. This is a red blood cell test. This drug is used to treat skin conditions and is most commonly found to treat respiratory infections. It is important that the nurse educate the patient on finishing the medication and not stopping early even if they are feeling better. If the symptoms don’t improve to call their doctor back as well as any diarrhea, abdominal cramping, fever, or bloody stools occur and not to treat with antidiarrheal without consulting doctor. If the patient is female educate that oral contraception is less effective and secondary precautions should be taken. The nurse will asses for infection as well as any history with penicillin’s. Observe for signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis, rash, pruritus, laryngeal edema, wheezing. The nurse will monitor bowel function, fever, bloody stool.
The next drug is albuterol. This is an adrenergic drug that works as a bronchodilators. This can be inhaled or taken by mouth. It works as a bronchodilator to control and or prevent reversible air way obstruction in COPD and asthma patients. It’s mechanism of action is to bind to beta 2 adrenergic receptions which act on the smooth muscle to relax the air ways. Pertinent labs are a decrease in potassium and oxygen level should be monitored. Educate the patient to take as directed and contact doctor if the shortness of breath does not subside as this is a medical emergency. Instruct patient to rise mouth after administering and allow five minutes before taking another inhalant. A nurse will assess lung sounds, pulse, BP before administering & during peak. They will monitor pulmonary function tests before initiation therapy and through out as well as observe for wheezing. If wheezing is present, contact doctor and withhold medication.
The next medication is diazepam. This drug is a benzo so it works to depress the central nervous system through the GABA. It is used it a few different cases such as anxiety, sedation, muscle relaxant, alcohol withdrawal. Educate the patient to take as directed. Don’t drive until response to medication is known. Avoid alcohol and other CNS depressants and getting pregnant. Labs to run are renal and liver function, CBC as well as an increase in transaminases and alkaline phosphatase. A nurse will assess BP, pulse, RR as well as the IV site. Patients are at an increased risk of falls, it is also important to assess the mental status. If there is an over dose the antidote is Flumazenil. It is available to be taken IV, IM, PO.
The next medication is naloxone, which is an opioid antagonists. The mechanism of action is it competitively blocks the effects of opioids without producing any agonist effects. It is important to check the which opioid if any is in the blood. This drug is used in the reversal of CNS/respiratory depression due to suspected opioid overdose. When the patient regains consciousness the purpose and effects are explained to educate them. It is available IV and IM.
Nurse will assess for respiratory rate, rhythm and depth. As well as monitor pulse, ECG, BP and LOC. They will also assess for pain and signs and symptoms of withdrawal.
The last drug is digoxin. This is an anti arrhythmic drug. The mechanism of action is to increases the force of myocardial contraction. It also prolongs refractory period of AV node and decreases conduction through the SA and AV nodes. This drug is used in heart failure, atrial fibrillation/flutter paroxysmal atrial tachycardia. Labs are elevated electrolytes especially K, Mg and Ca. Liver and renal function tests are also recommended. This drug is available for IV, IM, PO. The nurse will monitor the apical pulse for one full minute before administering the medication. If the pulse is less than 60 the nurse will hold the medication. They will also monitor ECG through IV administration and 6 hours after each dose. As well as observe IV site, monitor I & O and check Y-site incompatibilities (before administering). The patient will be able to get educated on how to take their pulse and to call if it is less than 60 or greater than 100. The symptoms of toxicity will also be reviewed. Please find my references on the next slide, thanks for listening.