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Penicillin In Mass Production (1945)
 
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Unissued / Unused material. Item title reads - 'Penicillin now in Mass Production. American miracle!' Exterior L/S huge factory in Indiana. Interior shots huge vats etc. as penicillin is produced. M/S bottles on trays. M/S ladies packing the finished penicillin. M/S row of white rabbits, on which the penicillin will be tested, with their heads in slots. The camera pans across them. M/S as one has an injection of penicillin in its ear. C/U rabbits. FILM ID:2028.22 A VIDEO FROM BRITISH PATHÉ. EXPLORE OUR ONLINE CHANNEL, BRITISH PATHÉ TV. IT'S FULL OF GREAT DOCUMENTARIES, FASCINATING INTERVIEWS, AND CLASSIC MOVIES. http://www.britishpathe.tv/ FOR LICENSING ENQUIRIES VISIT http://www.britishpathe.com/ British Pathé also represents the Reuters historical collection, which includes more than 120,000 items from the news agencies Gaumont Graphic (1910-1932), Empire News Bulletin (1926-1930), British Paramount (1931-1957), and Gaumont British (1934-1959), as well as Visnews content from 1957 to the end of 1979. All footage can be viewed on the British Pathé website. https://www.britishpathe.com/
Views: 4090 British Pathé
Production of antibiotics, 1950's.  Archive film 96036
 
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Close up of a clear zone around a bacteria colony, this is an indication of antibiotic production. Six test tubes with pure cultures of bacteria producing antibiotics, pan over the same cultures being grown in flasks (constantly agitated to encourage growth). Industrial antibiotic production. Pan of the industrial tanks. A technician is packing purified antibiotic. Close up of bottles containing antibiotics such as Penicillin, Aureo-Mycin, Terra-Mycin, Strepto-Mycin, Erythro-Mycin. Two pigs, one larger than the other, the larger pig was fed antibiotics in the diet which promoted rapid growth. A microbiology laboratory with two microbiologists presumably doing research on transferring bacteria to food materials in order to study the bi-products released during bacterial growth. A small scale laboratory extraction (isolation of bacterial bio-products)
Views: 515 HuntleyFilmArchives
How Alexander Fleming Accidentally Discovered Penicillin
 
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1) Why was Penicillin an accidental discovery ? 2) Name some of the diseases Penicillin can cure ? 3) Why did the British and American armies decide to mass produce penicillin from 1941 to 1945? 4) What was Flemming awarded? 5) Why is Flemming seen as a hero ? 6) What is the only problem with antibiotics ?
Views: 78787 Daniel Koechlin
Oxytetracycline - Terramycin Antibiotics: "Miracle from Mold" 1952 Pfizer
 
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NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Y9TdtrHM8w more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ "Gives the scientific story behind terramycin, one of the wonder drugs." Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxytetracycline Oxytetracycline was the second of the broad-spectrum tetracycline group of antibiotics to be discovered. Oxytetracycline works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to produce essential proteins. Without these proteins, the bacteria cannot grow, multiply and increase in numbers. Oxytetracycline therefore stops the spread of the infection and the remaining bacteria are killed by the immune system or eventually die. Oxytetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, active against a wide variety of bacteria. However, some strains of bacteria have developed resistance to this antibiotic, which has reduced its effectiveness for treating some types of infections. Oxytetracycline is still used to treat infections caused by Chlamydia (e.g. the chest infection psittacosis, the eye infection trachoma, and the genital infection urethritis) and infections caused by Mycoplasma organisms (e.g. pneumonia). Oxytetracycline is also used to treat acne, due to its activity against the bacteria on the skin that cause acne (Propionibacterium acnes). It is used to treat flare-ups of chronic bronchitis, due to its activity against the bacteria usually responsible, Haemophilus influenzae. Oxytetracycline may also be used to treat other rarer infections, such as those caused by a group of micro-organisms called rickettsiae (e.g. Q fever). To make sure the bacteria causing an infection are susceptible to it, a tissue sample is usually taken, for example a swab from the infected area, or a urine or blood sample. History It was first found near Pfizer laboratories in a soil sample yielding the soil actinomycete, Streptomyces rimosus by Finlay et al. In 1950, a celebrated American chemist, Robert B Woodward, worked out the chemical structure of oxytetracycline, enabling Pfizer to mass produce the drug under the trade name, Terramycin. This discovery by Woodward was a major advancement in tetracycline research and paved the way for the discovery of an oxytetracycline derivative, doxycycline, which is one of the most popularly used antibiotics today. Indications Oxytetracycline, like other tetracyclines, is used to treat many infections, both common and rare (see Tetracycline antibiotics group). Its better absorption profile makes it preferable to tetracycline for moderately severe acne at a dosage of 250--500 mg four times a day for usually six to eight weeks at a time, but alternatives should be sought if no improvement occurs by three months...
Views: 5809 Jeff Quitney
Synthetic Biology: Production of Novel Antibiotics - Eriko Takano
 
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https://www.ibiology.org/bioengineering/development-of-new-antibiotics/ Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem worldwide. To address this problem, Eriko Takano and her colleagues are developing methods to produce novel antibiotics using a synthetic biology approach. By performing genome analysis on many microbes, they can identify genes encoding novel biosynthesis pathways that may produce antibiotics. These gene clusters can be transferred to pre-engineered bacterial hosts to optimize drug production. Takano’s lab has developed software systems to search for gene clusters, and model, analyze, optimize and debug antibiotic production. Speaker Biography: Eriko Takano is a Professor at the University of Manchester, where she is Co-Director of the Manchester Synthetic Biology Research Centre SYNBIOCHEM. Takano studied pharmacy at Kitasato University in Tokyo before moving to the UK and receiving her PhD in the School of Biological Sciences at the University of East Anglia and the John Innes Centre. She became an Assistant Professor at the University of Tübingen and then a Rosalind Franklin Fellow and Associate Professor at the University of Groningen. In 2012, she started at the University of Manchester. Her lab develops microbial synthetic biology tools and uses them to produce fine and specialty chemicals.
Views: 3802 iBiology Techniques
Post-Antibiotic World | Indonesia's Palm Bomb (VICE on HBO: Season 3, Episode 6)
 
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We rely on antibiotics to treat everything from stomach bugs to skin rashes to bronchitis. In fact, we’ve been overusing them—and in doing so giving rise to new crop of dangerous bacterial infections that can’t be treated by anything we can get at the pharmacy. The more we use antibiotics, the more we help these superbugs build up their resistance. It’s an evolutionary battle, and the humans are losing. The projections are dire: according to some experts, antibiotic-resistant bacteria could kill 10 million people a year by 2050, surpassing cancer deaths. With their backs to the wall, scientists are now racing to find new natural sources of anti-bacterial compounds. VICE’s Thomas Morton travels along as they search deep in the jungle and deep underground for the life-saving drugs we so desperately need. Then: palm oil is used in almost all of the foods we eat and most of our household products—everything from packaged bread to cookies to toothpaste and soap. Production of palm oil has surged as a cheap alternative to trans fats. But as demand grows, growers in Indonesia are pushing farther and farther onto rainforest land, torching the forests as they go. The mass-burning of Indonesian jungles poses a major threat to wildlife, indigenous populations, and our global climate. VICE’s Ben Anderson goes to Indonesia to see the realities of the palm oil boom up close. VICE returns on Friday, February 5 at 11PM, exclusively on HBO Watch Season 1: http://bit.ly/1HyVviK Watch Season 2: http://bit.ly/1LBL8y6 Click here to subscribe to VICE: http://bit.ly/Subscribe-to-VICE Check out our full video catalog: http://bit.ly/VICE-Videos Videos, daily editorial and more: http://vice.com More videos from the VICE network: https://www.fb.com/vicevideos Like VICE on Facebook: http://fb.com/vice Follow VICE on Twitter: http://twitter.com/vice Read our Tumblr: http://vicemag.tumblr.com Follow us on Instagram: http://instagram.com/vice Check out our Pinterest: https://pinterest.com/vicemag
Views: 324922 VICE
USA: SMITHSONIAN ACQUIRES 1ST PENICILLIN MOULD
 
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English/Nat A mould that produced the first penicillin, grandfather of all antibiotics, has been acquired by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. The mould is a round, gray, flat, fuzzy-looking substance about an inch and a half wide, encased in glass. Next to it is a facsimile of the reverse side, showing the handwritten inscription: "The mould that makes Penicillin. Alexander Fleming." Fleming, a Scot, developed penicillin in 1928. He had been working on the possibility of an agent to kill bacteria, but succeeded by accident. A culture of bacteria left unprotected was contaminated by a mould - a fungus from the air. Scientists say that discovery was one of the most important of the 20th century. SOUNDBITE: (English) "I think everyone would say that the discovery of penicillin was one of the most important particularly at that time when infectious diseases were the number one killer in people of both the developed world and the underdeveloped countries, the United States and Europe and the underdeveloped and less developed countries." SUPER CAPTION: Scott Hopkins, MD, Pfizer Central Research He noticed that bacteria were killed in an area around the fungus. He managed to grow the fungus in a broth, but had trouble extracting the substance that killed the bacteria. Other researchers made progress in the 1930s, but they could only produce tiny quantities. Under the pressures of World War II, an American pharmaceutical firm found a way to mass produce it in 1944. Penicillin and its successors have saved millions of lives. SOUNDBITE: (English) "It's easy to forget that at the turn of the century when people came into pharmacies like this and even after WWII many were dying from infection, sometime from just a simple cut. Artifacts like the penicillin mold takes us back to an exciting time in history when the war against infections began to be won." SUPER CAPTION: Ray Kondratas, Curator and Chair, Div. of Science, Medicine and Society, National Museum of American History Pfizer Inc, the original mass producers, bought one of the two slides that Fleming gave his laboratory assistant, paying 35,160 US dollars at a London auction in 1996. The company lent it to a Smithsonian travelling exposition, "Microbes: Invisible Invaders, Amazing Allies," now on show in Washington at the International Gallery of the Smithsonian. SOUNDBITE: (English) "That gave us a tool to work with and the knowledge that we could take natural products the product of a mold and use that and manipulate it chemically to allow us to treat infections, and that was really the first time that we knew that we could do that." SUPER CAPTION: Scott Hopkins, MD, Pfizer Central Research Although penicillin was a breakthrough drug in fighting disease, now scientists worry that bacteria are developing ways to resist antibiotics faster than new ones can be found. Pfizer's board formally made a gift of the slide to the Smithsonian on Thursday. Sotheby's auction house authenticated the inscription as Fleming's handwriting. After the exhibit closes here September 6, it will travel to the Chicago Academy of Sciences and at least nine other American cities through January 5, 2003, before going into the National Museum of American History. You can license this story through AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/metadata/youtube/40ad46806a111a63279b6209fb49c169 Find out more about AP Archive: http://www.aparchive.com/HowWeWork
Views: 62 AP Archive
Past the Age of Miracles: Facing a Post-Antibiotic Age
 
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Subscribe to Dr. Greger’s free nutrition newsletter at https://www.nutritionfacts.org/subscribe and get a free recipe from his new HOW NOT TO DIE COOKBOOK. (All proceeds Dr. Greger receives from the sales of his books, DVDs, and speaking engagements go to support the 501c3 nonprofit that runs NutritionFacts.org.) DESCRIPTION: The Director-General of the World Health Organization warns that we may be facing an end to modern medicine as we know it thanks in part to the mass feeding of antibiotics to farm animals to accelerate growth. This issue, perhaps more than any other, lays to bare the power of moneyed interests to undermine public health. Look at the list of endorsers (http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/food_and_agriculture/pamta-endorsers-by-sector.pdf) of legislation to reform this practice, yet the sway of nearly every single medical organization in the United States is no match for the combined might of Big Ag and Big Pharma. For more on this issue, see: • Meat Mythcrushers (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/meat-mythcrushers/) • Drug Residues in Meat (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/drug-residues-in-meat/) • Toxic Megacolon Superbug (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/toxic-megacolon-superbug/) • Lowering Dietary Antibiotic Intake (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/lowering-dietary-antibiotic-intake/) • More Antibiotics In White Meat or Dark Meat? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/more-antibiotics-in-white-meat-or-dark-meat/) • Chicken Dioxins, Viruses, or Antibiotics? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/chicken-dioxins-viruses-or-antibiotics/) • MRSA in U.S. Retail Meat (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/mrsa-in-u-s-retail-meat/) • U.S. Meat Supply Flying at Half Staph (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/u-s-meat-supply-flying-at-half-staph/) What else do they feed farm animals? Check out: • Arsenic in Chicken (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/arsenic-in-chicken/) • Mad Fish Disease (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/mad-fish-disease/) • Chicken's Fate Is Sealed (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/chickens-fate-is-sealed/) • Artificial Coloring in Fish (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/artificial-coloring-in-fish/) Have a question for Dr. Greger about this video? Leave it in the comment section at http://nutritionfacts.org/video/past-the-age-of-miracles-facing-a-post-antibiotic-age/ and he'll try to answer it! http://www.NutritionFacts.org • Subscribe: http://www.NutritionFacts.org/subscribe • Donate: http://www.NutritionFacts.org/donate • HOW NOT TO DIE: http://nutritionfacts.org/book • Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NutritionFacts.org • Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/nutrition_facts • Instagram: http://instagram.com/nutrition_facts_org/ • Google+: https://plus.google.com/+NutritionfactsOrgMD • Podcast: http://nutritionfacts.org/audio/
Views: 15407 NutritionFacts.org
Chicken Dioxins, Viruses, or Antibiotics?
 
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Subscribe to Dr. Greger’s free nutrition newsletter at https://www.nutritionfacts.org/subscribe and get a free recipe from his new HOW NOT TO DIE COOKBOOK. (All proceeds Dr. Greger receives from the sales of his books, DVDs, and speaking engagements go to support the 501c3 nonprofit that runs NutritionFacts.org.) DESCRIPTION: The association between poultry and cancer may be explained by the presence in chickens' and turkeys' flesh of industrial carcinogens such as dioxins, oncogenic (cancer-causing) viruses, and/or the drugs that were fed to the birds. Have a question about this video? Leave it in the comment section at ‪http://nutritionfacts.org/videos/chicken-dioxins-viruses-or-antibiotics/ and I'll try to answer it! See the "prequel," EPIC Findings on Lymphoma (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/epic-findings-on-lymphoma/), and the one before it on general cancer rates. For more on industrial pollutants in meat, see Vegetarians Versus Healthy Omnivores (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/vegetarians-versus-healthy-omnivores/), Harvard's Meat and Mortality Studies (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/harvards-meat-and-mortality-studies/) and Prevention Is Better Than Cured Meat (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/prevention-is-better-than-cured-meat/). For more on cancer-causing viruses, see Breast Cancer Survival, Butterfat, and Chicken (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/breast-cancer-survival-butterfat-and-chicken/), Meat Additives to Diminish Toxicity (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/meat-additives-to-diminish-toxicity/) and Carcinogens in the Smell of Frying Bacon (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/carcinogens-in-the-smell-of-frying-bacon/). And for more on drug residues in meat, see Drug Residues in Meat (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/drug-residues-in-meat/). The mass use of antibiotics in chicken feed may also be contributing to the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (for example, see U.S. Meat Supply Flying at Half Staph - http://nutritionfacts.org/video/u-s-meat-supply-flying-at-half-staph/). There are also hundreds of other videos on more than a thousand subjects (http://nutritionfacts.org/topics/). http://www.NutritionFacts.org • Subscribe: http://www.NutritionFacts.org/subscribe • Donate: http://www.NutritionFacts.org/donate • HOW NOT TO DIE: http://nutritionfacts.org/book • Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NutritionFacts.org • Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/nutrition_facts • Instagram: http://instagram.com/nutrition_facts_org/ • Google+: https://plus.google.com/+NutritionfactsOrgMD • Podcast: http://nutritionfacts.org/audio/
Views: 5556 NutritionFacts.org
How It's Made Pills
 
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Discovery / Science Channel's "How It's Made" Pills episode
Views: 449177 TRR56
Change farming and save our antibiotics | Cóilin Nunan | TEDxExeter
 
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Imagine a global health crisis which causes more deaths than cancer. That’s the future we face unless we take action now to stop the rise of antibiotic resistance. Drawing on decades of academic research, Cóilín Nunan shares the action we need to take now to save our antibiotics. Cóilín Nunan is the scientific adviser to the Alliance to Save Our Antibiotics, an alliance of health, medical, environmental and animal-welfare groups working to stop the overuse of antibiotics in livestock farming. He has co-authored numerous reports on antibiotic resistance and antibiotic residues that highlight the human health impact of excessive antibiotic use in intensive livestock farming. This work aims to encourage a move to more responsible use of antibiotics in farming, through better regulation and improvements in production systems, which would also improve animal health and welfare. -- At TEDxExeter 2018 we focussed on making connections - and building bridges. Our speakers challenged us to reflect on how, in this interconnected, interdependent world, global issues affect all of our lives, and our actions affect others. In these turbulent times of shock political outcomes, “fake news”, data breaches, war, mass migration, rapid technological progress and climate change we believe that ideas have the power to change attitudes, lives, and ultimately, the world. TEDxExeter Curator - Claire Kennedy @clairekennedy__ - http://tedxexeter.com Production Manager - Andy Robertson @geekdadgamer - http://www.youtube.com/familygamertv Film & Livestream - First Sight Media @firstsightmedia - http://firstsightmedia.co.uk/ Cóilín Nunan is the scientific adviser to the Alliance to Save Our Antibiotics, an alliance of health, medical, environmental and animal-welfare groups working to stop the overuse of antibiotics in livestock farming. He has co-authored numerous reports on antibiotic resistance and antibiotic residues that highlight the human health impact of excessive antibiotic use in intensive livestock farming. This work aims to encourage a move to more responsible use of antibiotics in farming, through better regulation and improvements in production systems, which would also improve animal health and welfare. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at https://www.ted.com/tedx
Views: 697 TEDx Talks
KFC promises not to serve chickens raised with antibiotics for humans
 
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KFC promises not to serve chickens raised with antibiotics for humans Please subscribe to this channel The Lazy Boys Journey https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCAGzmyWFC7pHwmghNtjnuTg https://www.youtube.com/user/ShadowCh10/featured
The Antibiotic Apocalypse Explained
 
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What is the Antibiotic Apocalypse? What is it all about? And how dangerous is it? Kurzgesagt MERCH! http://bit.ly/1P1hQIH Support us on Patreon so we can make more stuff (and get cool wallpapers): https://www.patreon.com/Kurzgesagt?ty=h Get the music of the video here: Soundcloud: http://bit.ly/1Lqpa69 Bandcamp: http://bit.ly/1pnWMqG Epic Mountain Music: http://bit.ly/22k7EYF THANKS A LOT TO OUR LOVELY PATRONS FOR SUPPORTING US: Sara Priselac, Eric, José Díez, Antonie Coetzee, Julien Dubois, Mert Tekin, Reno, Ran Moneta, Terry Breen-Smith, Azri Rostam, Guy Nicholson, DeAdrean Martin, Ty Cook, Wes Blind, Marc Stein, Mathias Højbjerg, Rustan Curman, Christopher Homs, Selene Kwan, Nikita, Jamie Buch, Yong-Bi Jo, Charles Cartwrighte, Steven Ferrari, Logan Kent, Danimal, Matthias Gyllenvarg, Kieran Keegan, Jai Kowalik, Chad Mellor, Karla Brilman, Daniel Dchuette, Lindsey Skouras, Allan Lehamnn Kristensen, Michael DeFreitas, James Wiles, Brian Lathrop, Kyle Sayers, Zack, Touki Wawa Wang, David Campos, Conner Fissell, Atlas Moon, Trevor Kam, Anon, Jan Sundgaard Schultz, Andrew Wissam Chidiac Cherian The Antibiotic Apocalypse Explained Help us caption & translate this video! http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UCsXVk37bltHxD1rDPwtNM8Q&tab=2
A Miracle From A Mould  AKA Alexander Fleming & Penicillin Discovery (1944)
 
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Unissued / unused footage - dates and locations may be unclear / unknown. Titles read: 'African Mirror No. 246 - A MIRACLE FROM A MOULD'. C/Us of mouldy potatoes, bread and fruit. M/S still of Professor Alexander Fleming of St Mary's Hospital, London, the man who discovered penicillin. C/Us of laboratory dishes with mould cultures on them, as commentator explains the work that led to the discovery of the drug. C/U of specimen of penicillin spores that has been sent to South Africa (label on side of bottle is dated 6 January 1944). The bottle is opened and a tiny tube with a pellet inside it taken out. The tube is cut open, the pellet is dropped into a test tube of fluid. The fluid is added to other tubes and incubated in a special cabinet. Later, the tubes are taken out. C/U of one of the test tubes to show it is now a large, mouldy blob. The penicillin is transferred into glass flasks for further incubation. Shot of the flasks with clear liquid inside; fade into shot of flasks with mass of white mould inside. Fluid is taken from the flasks and put into test tubes. C/Us of test tubes shows how the penicillin drug has cleared deadly germs in one of them. Scientist looks through microscope. Magnified view of "the wonder fungus". C/U of still of Professor Alexander Fleming. FILM ID:1944.23 A VIDEO FROM BRITISH PATHÉ. EXPLORE OUR ONLINE CHANNEL, BRITISH PATHÉ TV. IT'S FULL OF GREAT DOCUMENTARIES, FASCINATING INTERVIEWS, AND CLASSIC MOVIES. http://www.britishpathe.tv/ FOR LICENSING ENQUIRIES VISIT http://www.britishpathe.com/ British Pathé also represents the Reuters historical collection, which includes more than 120,000 items from the news agencies Gaumont Graphic (1910-1932), Empire News Bulletin (1926-1930), British Paramount (1931-1957), and Gaumont British (1934-1959), as well as Visnews content from 1957 to the end of 1979. All footage can be viewed on the British Pathé website. https://www.britishpathe.com/
Views: 4415 British Pathé
Shrimp: The Disgusting Truth
 
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NPR and advocacy group Public Citizen have reported on the disgusting and dangerous conditions of Asian shrimp farms, the same farms that supply 90% of the shrimp in the United States. The Young Turks Ana Kasparian and Cenk Uygur discuss. http://www.citizen.org/cmep/article_redirect.cfm?ID=12706 The Largest Online News Show in the World. Google+: http://www.gplus.to/TheYoungTurks Facebook: Twitter: http://twitter.com/intent/user?screen_name=theyoungturks Support TYT for FREE: http://bit.ly/eWuu5i
Views: 928527 The Young Turks
Alexander Fleming and the Accidental Mould Juice – The Serendipity of Science (2/3)
 
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For more like this subscribe to the Open University channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCXsH4hSV_kEdAOsupMMm4Qw Free learning from The Open University: http://www.open.edu/ - - - - Alexander Fleming and the Accidental Mould Juice – The Serendipity of Science (2/3) When Alexander Fleming came back from holiday he noticed that mould contamination on an experimental plate had killed a pathogen. Fleming wondered 'Why?' Careful observation, rigorous scientific thinking and painstaking experimental work led to the discovery of pencillin. This material relates to the Open University course Exploring Science (S104). (Part 2 of 3) Playlist link: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLhQpDGfX5e7AjUi2OPDIkOqQv8uFhl3ZU Transcript: http://media-podcast.open.ac.uk/feeds/3399_serendipityofsciencesavinglives/transcript/36566_nc_2015_mooc_vid003.pdf - - - - Learn more for free about studying Basic Science with Open Learn: http://www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths-technology/basic-science-understanding-experiments/content-section-overview Study Exploring Science with the Open University: http://www.open.ac.uk/courses/modules/s104 - - - - Follow us on #OUFreeLearning Twitter https://twitter.com/OUFreeLearning
Rise of the Superbugs
 
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Check out GROSS SCIENCE: http://bit.ly/1DH5zbv Subscribe: http://bit.ly/iotbs_sub Twitter: @okaytobesmart ↓ More info and sources below ↓ Are we entering the post-antibiotic era? Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, with millions of infections reported every year and thousands of deaths. How does antibiotic resistance work? How did we get here? And what can we do in the future to make sure that papercuts don't spell a death sentence? Explore further: Imagining the Post-Antibiotics Future - Maryn McKenna: https://medium.com/editors-picks/892b57499e77 Antibiotic-Resistant Germs, Lying in Wait Everywhere - Carl Zimmer: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/08/science/antibiotic-resistant-germs-lying-in-wait.html?_r=2 The story of Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin: https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/flemingpenicillin.html Ramanan Laxminarayan at TEDMED: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iWHq2m_Hwhw FDA statement on Triclosan (in antibacterial soap): http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm205999.htm Have an idea for an episode or an amazing science question you want answered? Leave a comment below! Follow on Twitter: http://twitter.com/okaytobesmart http://twitter.com/jtotheizzoe Follow on Tumblr: http://www.itsokaytobesmart.com Follow on Instagram: http://instagram.com/jtotheizzoe ----------------- It's Okay To Be Smart is written and hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.DFollow me on Twitter: @jtotheizzoe Email me: itsokaytobesmart AT gmail DOT com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/itsokaytobesmart Google+ https://plus.google.com/+itsokaytobesmart For more awesome science, check out: http://www.itsokaytobesmart.com Produced by PBS Digital Studios: http://www.youtube.com/user/pbsdigitalstudios Joe Hanson - Creator/Host/Writer Joe Nicolosi - Director Amanda Fox - Producer, Spotzen IncKate Eads - Associate Producer Andrew Matthews - Editing/Motion Graphics/Animation Katie Graham - Director of Photography John Knudsen - Gaffer Dalton Allen - Post-Production Intern Theme music: "Ouroboros" by Kevin MacLeod Other music via APM Stock images from Shutterstock, stock footage from Videoblocks ----------------- Last week's video: The Recipe For Life https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tuBWjY9BpEc More videos: Why Does February Have 28 Days? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AgKaHTh-_Gs Why Vaccines Work https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3aNhzLUL2ys Why Are Some People Left-Handed? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPvMUpcxPSA Where Does the Smell of Rain Come From? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lGcE5x8s0B8
Views: 447850 It's Okay To Be Smart
28th September 1928: Penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming
 
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On the 28th September 1928, the bacteriologist Alexander Fleming laid for the foundation for a revolution in modern medicine when he discovered the world’s first antibiotic. Penicillin – which Fleming originally referred to as ‘mould juice’ – was initially met with little attention or enthusiasm by the medical establishment. However, the early 1940s saw research by Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain at the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford raise the profile of the drug and begin mass-production to treat Allied casualties in the Second World War. Fleming was always very modest about his contribution to the development of penicillin, and often referred to the ‘Fleming myth’ surrounding the drug. However, as the first person to identify the antibiotic properties of the active substance, Fleming earned the right to name it. He made the discovery after returning to his laboratory after a family holiday and finding that a petri dish containing staphylococci bacteria had been contaminated with an unidentified fungus. The bacteria around the fungus had been destroyed, whereas bacteria that was further away survived. It was at this point that he famously uttered the words, “That’s funny” and began investigating the fungus. Over time Fleming identified that the fungus came from the genus penicillium, and laboratory tests indicated that it could be used to destroy a variety of disease-causing bacteria. However, despite his best efforts he was never able to cultivate the fungus in any significant quantity or isolate the active ingredient. The work of subsequent scientists was therefore vital to the development of the antibiotic, although without Fleming there would have been no fungus to investigate.
Views: 2712 HistoryPod
THE FDA, TRUTH ABOUT THE CHICKEN YOU EAT - 2017 - KFC - GMO, STEROIDS, ANTIBIOTICS.........
 
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WOW! THIS MAN SPILLS BEANS ON WHAT'S REALLY GOING ON INSIDE THE "CHICKEN COOP" MAN ON THE INSIDE TELLS THE WORLD THE TRUTH. HE BETTER GO INTO HIDING, THEY MAY WANT TO KILL HIM FOR THIS INFORMATION GETTING OUT!
Views: 11708 unworthyservant
Spy Drones Expose Smithfield Foods Factory Farms
 
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"Spy Drones Expose Smithfield Foods Factory Farms": SINCE 2012, "Speciesism: The Movie" director Mark Devries has been secretly using spy drones to investigate and expose the environmental devastation caused by factory farms. In this video, the drones capture shocking aerial footage of several massive facilities that supply pigs for Smithfield Foods. Find out more at http://FactoryFarmDrones.com
Views: 5574103 SpeciesismTheMovie
Activists raise alarm on toxic fish farming in Chile
 
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Activists raise alarm on toxic fish farming in Chile Greenpeace is warning of an environmental disaster in Chile. It says the mass production of salmon and overuse of antibiotics in fish farms is to blame. Diseased fish are dying by the millions and are being dumped into the ocean, leading to even bigger problems. Al Jazeera's Lucia Newman reports from Magellan Strait. - Subscribe to our channel: http://aje.io/AJSubscribe - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/AJEnglish - Find us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/aljazeera - Check our website: http://www.aljazeera.com/
Views: 4054 Al Jazeera English
Is Dairy Holding You Back? Health Hack- Thomas DeLauer
 
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Is Dairy Holding You Back- Health Hack with Thomas DeLauer is an in-depth look at the history of the dairy industry, the changes in practices over the last 20 years, and how it may be affecting your digestion, protein absorption and overall tolerance for lactose. Find out how hormones, antibiotics and mass production on dairy farms may potentially be causing adverse health issues. Join Celebrity Trainer & Organic Foods Expert, Thomas DeLauer to find out how you can determine what your tolerance is to dairy and how it may affect you. Learn how to avoid excess inflammation and ensure that you are getting proper levels of Omage-3 to help you stay on track toward your health and fitness goals. Thomas Creates Loads of Health and Fitness Videos, and you can get more of them at: http://www.ThomasDeLauer.com If you found this video helpful, head on over and “like” Thomas’s facebook fan page at http://www.Facebook.com/Thomas.DeLauer and subscribe to my channel on YouTube at the link below. I’ll see you there! Click here to follow Thomas DeLauer on YouTube for more Health & Fitness Tips: https://www.youtube.com/user/TheTdelauer Thomas Creates Loads of Health and Fitness Videos, and you can get more of them at: http://www.ThomasDeLauer.com Click here to sign up for the free BeFiT newsletter for workout tips, recipes and more! http://befit.com/?utm_source=anno&utm_medium=youtube&utm_campaign=2015 Get more out of your workout! Click here to find out how: https://www.befitfitnessnutrition.com/supplements/?utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=befitburn&utm_campaign=anno Click Here to Subscribe to the BeFit channel: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=Befit For full selection of great workouts like this one, visit the BeFit Channel on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/befit Check out our official website at: http://www.befit.com/ Check us out on Facebook http://www.facebook.com/befit Follow us on Twitter at: http://www.twitter.com/befit Follow us on Instagram at: http://instagram.com/befit Check us out on Google+ https://plus.google.com/104994741925506474033/posts Check us out on Pinterest http://www.pinterest.com/befit To purchase DVD's, Check out the Lionsgate Fitness store at: http://www.lionsgateshop.com/search_results.asp?type=fitness&GenreId=8 Disclaimer: Not all exercises are suitable for everyone. If you are concerned about whether the exercises in this or any other diet or exercise program are right for you, do not do them unless and until you’ve cleared it with your physician. This is particularly important if you are overweight, pregnant, nursing, taking regular medications, or have any existing or medical health conditions. The workout tips and instructions included in this video are not a substitute for medical counseling. As with any exercise program, if at any point during your workout you begin to feel faint, dizzy, or have physical discomfort, you should stop immediately. You are responsible for exercising within your limits and seeking medical advice and attention as appropriate. BeFit, its parent, subsidiaries and affiliates are not responsible for any injuries that result from participating in the exercises shown in this program. Enjoy your workout!
Views: 38487 BeFiT
Growing Bacteria - Petri Dish
 
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Order now at http://www.stevespanglerscience.com/search?sSearch=agar&sClass=Product&sType=&submit.x=0&submit.y=0 You can smell a good science project a block away. In this case, multiply the fun by six and you have one of our most popular science fair project kits. You'll get six large Petri dishes, 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, a microwave safe plastic beaker, cotton swabs and the highest quality nutrient agar. This is the same nutrient agar used by microbiologists to grow really funky stuff in the lab. The instructions give you great suggestions for collecting samples and ways to gross out your parents.
Views: 539464 Sick Science!
Attack of the Super Bugs
 
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Don't panic! But you should really know about antibiotic-resistant bacteria, aka super bugs. They're here, and they're doing very well, thank you. SciShow explains what they are, how they're getting around our best drugs, and what science (and you) can do to help. ---------- Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/artist/52/SciShow Or help support us by subscribing to our page on Subbable: https://subbable.com/scishow ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Thanks Tank Tumblr: http://thankstank.tumblr.com Sources: http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2011/08/31/bacteria-resisting-antibiotics-for-at-least-30000-bc/ http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/superbug http://www.oxfordjournals.org/our_journals/jpids/prpaper.pdf http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/antibiotic-use/antibiotic-resistance-faqs.html http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-do-antibiotics-kill-b/ http://health.howstuffworks.com/medicine/medication/question88.htm http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm28pe.html http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1945/fleming-bio.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RpKZvnJwicA CDC ad https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ikZQPB45Zbw -- Karl Klose TED talk http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/campaign-materials/print-materials/Brochure-general-color.pdf http://www.livescience.com/43301-explainer-what-is-a-virus.html http://www.microbeworld.org/types-of-microbes/bacteria http://uhavax.hartford.edu/bugl/histepi.htm http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-and-human-body/human-diseases/plague-article/ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tim-fothergill-phd/superbugs_b_4709723.html http://www.bioexpress.ac.cn/upload/20110916-nature10388.pdf http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC90351/ http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/consumer-health/in-depth/antibiotics/art-20045720 http://www.idsociety.org/Index.aspx http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/resistance-to-antibiotics-is-becoming-a-crisis/2012/07/10/gJQAFwFfbW_story.html http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tim-fothergill-phd/antibiotic-research_b_4784234.html http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/04/16/cid.cit152.full http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/swapping-germs/ http://www.mayoclinic.org/medical-professionals/clinical-updates/digestive-diseases/quick-inexpensive-90-percent-cure-rate - fecal transplant http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110608093745.htm http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120326113626.htm http://www.healthline.com/health-news/tech-two-new-techniques-to-fight-bacteria-without-antibiotics-101813 http://oregonstate.edu/ua/ncs/archives/2013/oct/beyond-antibiotics-%E2%80%9Cppmos%E2%80%9D-offer-new-approach-bacterial-infection -PPMO * http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3278648/ -- phage* http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2011-11/bacteria-swap-gene-information-through-global-network http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2011/hgt-bacteria-1031 http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/cellular-microscopic/question561.htm http://www.evolution-of-life.com/en/observe/video/fiche/mutations-selection-the-bacteria-resist.html http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21942/
Views: 608301 SciShow
Echinacea Benefits~ "King" Antibiotic, Blood Purification, Immune Stimulation~
 
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~Purple coneflower stimulates the overall activity of the cells responsible for fighting all kinds of infection. Unlike antibiotics, which directly attack bacteria, Purple coneflower makes our own immune cells more efficient at attacking bacteria, viruses and abnormal cells, including cancer cells. It increases the number and activity of immune system cells including anti-tumor cells, promotes T-cell activation, stimulates new tissue growth for wound healing and reduces inflammation in arthritis and inflammatory skin conditions. ~The most consistently proven effect of Purple coneflower is in stimulating phagocytosis (the consumption of invading organisms by white blood cells and lymphocytes). Extracts of Purple coneflower can increase phagocytosis by 20-40%. ~Purple coneflower also stimulates the production of interferon as well as other important products of the immune system, including "Tumor Necrosis Factor", which is important to the body's response against cancer. Purple coneflower also inhibits an enzyme (hyaluronidase) secreted by bacteria to help them gain access to healthy cells. Research in the early 1950's showed that Purple coneflower could completely counteract the effect of this enzyme, helping to prevent infection when used to treat woundsAlthough Purple coneflower is usually used internally for the treatment of viruses and bacteria, it is now being used more and more for the treatment of external wounds. It also kills yeast and slows or stops the growth of bacteria and helps to stimulate the growth of new tissue. It combats inflammation too, further supporting its use in the treatment of wounds. HISTORY AND FOLKLORE Echinacea was used at length by Native Americans and by traditional herbalists in the United States and in Canada. One of the first written accounts was by an equestrian from Louisiana who used this herb topically on horses. According to the ethnobotanical work, Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region, written in 1914 by Melvin Gilmore, "echinacea seems to have been used as a remedy for more ailments than any other plant." A variety of tribes, including the Pawnee, Dakota, Omaha-Winnebego relied heavily upon this plant. It was used for situations ranging from swellings to distemper in horses. This healing herb was administered as a fresh juice, herbal smudge or smoke, and often either the leaf or root was simply chewed on. Echinacea was used traditionally for supporting the immune system and also for topical use. The Eclectic physicians in the United States popularized Echinacea in the late 1800's showing particular interest in E. angustifolia. John Uri Lloyd and John King were major proponents of this herb, extolling its virtues far and wide for several years until it became the single most widely used herb by the Eclectics.It was all the rage until the Eclectic schools closed down in the mid 1930's at which point the popularity of echinacea declined in the United States(Western Medicine took over~ ). It fell out of fashion until the 1970's when herbalists resurrected it. However, during this time, E. purpurea was gaining recognition in Germany. Ironically, E. angustifolia was the species that most traditional herbalists and Native Americans used medicinally, yet E. purpurea was the species that the Germans ended up researching and therefore the one that became the most popular, first in Europe, and then in the United States. Thus, the species which had the most substantiated historical evidence, has the least scientific research.As the story goes, in the 1950's the Swiss naturopathic doctor, Dr. Vogel, came to the U.S. to study Echinacea in South Dakota. He brought seeds back which he believed were from E. angustifolia and gave them to a German doctor who planted them and made medicine. Soon it was discovered that the species was actually E. purpurea which is why it became so popular and widely studied in Europe. HERBAL ACTIONS Immune supporting, depurative, vulnerary, lymphatic, sialagogue My videos are not instructional, and make no claims of anything. If one is extremely ill seek advice of natural health care provider. Thank you~ Have a wonderful day. Stay tuned for Shilajit. This is a miraculous substance that very well may change your life.
HD Stock Footage WWII Penicillin Manufacturing For War Effort 1944 Newsreel
 
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True HD Direct Film Transfers - NO UPCONVERSIONS! http://www.buyoutfootage.com/pages/titles/pd_mnr_139.html Penicillin drug saves Allied lives and is in mass production. Shows how penicillin is manufactured. Please visit our website for additional WWII film titles. http://www.buyoutfootage.com/pages/subtops/pd_mil_wwii.html Buyout Footage is a leading supplier of public domain and royalty free stock footage for filmmakers, broadcasters, advertising agencies, multi-media and production companies worldwide. Historical Footage in True HD.
Organic Food Science: What Does Organic Mean and is Organic Food Healthier?
 
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To support our channel and level up your health, check out: Our Fast Weight Loss Course: http://thehealthnerds.com/the-science-of-fast-weight-loss-course Our Better Health Basics Course: http://thehealthnerds.com/food-health-happiness Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thehealthnerds/ PRODUCE GUIDE: https://snaped.fns.usda.gov/seasonal-produce-guide On this video, we will be covering organic food, what does organic mean, and answering the question of is organic food healthier. And at the end we’re going to discuss what foods are the most important to eat organic. Let’s get started by answering the question of what does organic mean? Organic food is food produced with the standards of organic farming. Standards vary worldwide, but they general mean food produced without the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. http://www.organic.org/home/faq Animals products only qualify as organic if they do not take antibiotics or hormones during their development. Now I should clarify, pesticides can be used by organic farmers on crops, just as long as they are derived from natural sources and are not synthetically created. https://www.bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/organic Because mass producing crops without ANY pesticides would be a nightmare with wasted food in epic proportions. As my home boys over at ASAP Science so aptly put, just because a bag of chips has the “organic” label on them, does not make them healthy. Cookies, chips, and ice cream are not suddenly good for you because they are organic. But when people ask is organic food healthier, they are usually asking for a comparison of foods like veggies, fruits, and certain animal products. The scientific data we have is actually VERY so split on this issue: The reason: Money money money. MONEY. Monsanto, the famous poster child for evil pesticide producers, makes over 4.5 BILLION dollars in sales yearly and spends an average of 5 million dollars a year in public lobbying. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monsanto When most people say that organic is not healthier for you, they usually cite a Stanford Review done in 2012 that came to conclusion that organic foods are not more nutritious than conventional foods. http://annals.org/aim/article/1355685/organic-foods-safer-healthier-than-conventional-alternatives-systematic-review Although, the study did concede that organic does limit the exposure or pesticides and antibiotic resistant bacteria. A new study published in the British Journal of Nutrition is the latest addition to the debate. It’s the largest meta-analysis that has been published on this topic, covering 343 individual studies looking into organic food. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26878105 One of the major conclusions found organic foods could boost a person’s antioxidant intake by up to 40%. One thing in favor of eating organic that these studies can not refute is reducing the amount of pesticides being ingested… On average, pesticides like cadmium had levels 400% lower, respectively, in organic produce than in conventional varieties. Since cadmium is a highly toxic metal that has been linked to an increased risk of everything from Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, and hormone disruption, it’s probably a good idea to minimize cadmium in your diet. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24557150 Other study’s have also linked pesticide exposure in children to ADHD and other development problems like low IQ. http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1989564,00.html https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/04/21/pesticide-exposure-in-womb-affects-i-q/?_r=0 So, are organic foods healthier for you? Yes! In some studies, they have slightly more nutrients and do minimize our exposure to synthetic pesticides, antibiotics, and hormones added to what we eat. So should everyone eat organic? Not really. Cost is an issue for many people. #1. It seems animal products are more important to be organic than veggies. #2. Frozen organic foods are always a little cheaper #3. Use the clean 15 and dirty dozen list for fruits and veggies The Clean 15 are non-organic foods that have minimal pesticide exposure • Avocados • Sweet Corn • Pineapples • Cabbage • Frozen Sweet Peas • Onions • Asparagus • Mangos • Papayas • Kiwi • Eggplant • Honey Dew • Grapefruit • Cantelope • Cauliflower The dirty dozen on the other hand are the foods that have a lot of pesticide load if consumed non-organic. These foods are: • Strawberries • Apples • Nectarines • Peaches • Celery • Grapes • Cherries • Spinach • Tomatoes • Sweet bell peppers • Cherry tomatoes • Cucumbers Cheers!
Views: 62349 The Health Nerd
Restaurants graded on antibiotics in meat supply
 
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YOUR DESCRIPTION HAS REACHED THE LIMIT OF CHARACTERS ALLOWED AND WAS CUT. (CNN) -- A new report is sounding the alarm about the use of antibiotics in the meat and poultry supply chains of the 25 largest U.S. fast food and "fast casual" restaurants. Most top U.S. restaurant chains have no publicly available policy to limit regular use of antibiotics in their meat and poultry supply chains, according to the "Chain Reaction" report by Friends of the Earth, the Natural Resources Defense Council and four other consumer interest, public health and environmental organizations. "When livestock producers administer antibiotics routinely to their flocks and herds, bacteria can develop resistance, thrive and even spread to our communities, contributing to the larger problem of antibiotic resistance," the authors wrote in the report, which was released Tuesday. "The worsening epidemic of resistance means that antibiotics may not work when we need them most: when our kids contract a staph infection (MRSA), or our parents get a life-threatening pneumonia." The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization have repeatedly warned about the not-far-off public health threat of antibiotic resistance. The CDC estimates at least 2 million Americans contract antibiotic-resistant infections every year, and that 23,000 die as a result. "A post-antibiotic era -- in which common infections and minor injuries can kill -- far from being an apocalyptic fantasy, is instead a very real possibility for the 21st century," the WHO cautioned in a 2014 report. As people are eating out more than ever, the researchers behind the report wanted to look closely at "industry leaders and laggards." They created a scorecard assessing the commitments of U.S. restaurant chains on antibiotics use and transparency in their supply chains. Each restaurant was graded on its antibiotics use policies, including the strength of the policy and whether it applies to all types of meat; its implementation of policies, including the estimated availability of meat produced without routine antibiotics; and transparency about its policies, including third-party audits, whether its policy was listed online and whether it responded to the survey. The authors reached out to restaurants in person, via email or via traditional mail. The total number of possible points was based on the restaurant's menu offerings. Chipotle and Panera Bread fared best, with both receiving As. Those restaurants are the only two that report serving a majority of their meat from animals raised without regular use of antibiotics, the report said. "While many people are just starting to pay attention to the issue, we have known for a long time that it is the right thing to do, and we are pleased to see others taking even small steps to curb antibiotic use in livestock," Chipotle said in response to the report. Panera Bread responded, "More than a decade ago, we started serving chicken raised without antibiotics -- ahead of the industry. We're glad to see that others have followed and proud to have extended our commitment to all of the chicken, ham, bacon, sausage and roasted turkey on our salads and sandwiches." Chick-fil-A received a grade of B, and responded to the rating by noting that it was "the first in the quick service restaurant industry to announce a commitment to 'No Antibiotics Ever' in its chicken supply back in 2014. ... Because of this stringent requirement and our desire to have third-party verification of our suppliers' processes, the switch will take some time." Dunkin' Donuts and McDonald's received Cs. Subway, Wendy's, Burger King, Denny's, Domino's and Starbucks all received Fs, but got at least one point. CNN reached out to 11 restaurant chains singled out by this study, and several responded to the report. - "Dunkin' Donuts has stringent food quality standards for all of our products that meet all requirements of the FDA and USDA -- complying with all laws, ordinances and regulations," the doughnut chain said. - Wendy's said it is testing grilled chicken that is raised without antibiotics. - Burger King Corp. said it would review the findings. - Domino's said its suppliers "currently meet all USDA requirements and we don't purchase chicken or beef treated with the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics." - Starbucks said it was working with its suppliers to address concerns about antibiotic use. Other restaurants that received Fs earned zero out of 36 possible points: Olive Garden, Papa John's, Taco Bell, Pizza Hut, KFC, Applebee's, Sonic, Chili's, Jack in the Box, Arby's, Dairy Queen, IHOP, Outback and Little Caesars. One of the chains scoring a zero, Papa John's, said it is spending 00 million a year to eliminate artificial ingredients and other additives and that "by the first half of 2016, we will offer antibiotic-free chicken on our pizza." "Panera and Chipotle are the only chains that publicly affirm that the majority of the
Views: 626 LOCAL 12
Animal Care--Taking the Mystery Out of Pork Production at Smithfield Foods
 
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Animal care is central to the success of both Smithfield Foods and our hog production subsidiary Murphy-Brown. Without healthy pigs, we can't produce high quality and affordable pork products. This video explains many of our animal care best practices, and gives a behind-the-scenes look at proper animal care in modern American pork production. _______________________________________ If you'd like to give feedback about our videos or have other comments you'd like to share with us, please feel free to contact us via our corporate website, our Facebook page, or our Twitter account, found at the links below. http://smithfieldfoods.com http://www.facebook.com/SmithfieldFoods http://twitter.com/SmithfieldFoods
Views: 1642583 SmithfieldFoods
antiSMASH: Searching for New Antibiotics Using Open Source Tools - Kai Blin
 
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Ever since Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic being produced by a Penicillium mould in 1928, scientists have been searching bacteria and fungi for new substances to combat infectious diseases. In the last 40 years however, only few new substances have been discovered that actually reached the market. In the arms race between bacteria developing new resistances and humanity developing new antibiotics, a more organized approach on drug discovery can keep us from falling behind.
Rutgers and Streptomycin: First Tuberculosis Treatment
 
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Rutgers research yields the discovery of the antibiotic streptomycin, the first treatment for tuberculosis. This excerpt was prepared as part of the Rutgers 250th anniversary celebration. Music licensed through FirstCom. Explore the Rutgers Through the Years timeline - http://timeline.rutgers.edu Connect with us on Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/RutgersU Follow us on Twitter - http://www.twitter.com/RutgersU Instagram - http://instagram.com/RutgersU
Views: 1535 Rutgers
What Would Happen in a World WITHOUT ANTIBIOTICS
 
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The first antibiotic, penicillin, was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming and they are used to fight bacterial diseases and infections. The problem is that they are overprescribed and often prescribed to fight viruses, like the common cold and influenza, despite the fact that antibiotics aren’t effective against viruses. →Subscribe for new videos every day! https://www.youtube.com/user/toptenznet?sub_confirmation=1 → → GET A T-SHIRT - http://www.toptenz.net/toptenz-t-shirts →Top 10 Objects That Were Clearly Invented Just to Annoy Physics: https://youtu.be/0MVGeRa-vLo →Simon's VLOG: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCvqt8j7DfPmveJp3UOk9XTg Entertaining and educational top 10 lists from TopTenzNet! Brand new videos 7 days a week! Subscribe to our Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TopTenz/ Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/theoriginaltoptenz/ Other TopTenz Videos: Top 10 CONSPIRACY Theories About MEDICINE https://youtu.be/uDFi1VeayTw?list=PLQ4d2-ByGhnLt3JIYHY_PUk7TrxFJZFGK Top 10 SHOCKING Real Theories About ZOMBIES https://youtu.be/wSzxKur2b20?list=PLQ4d2-ByGhnLt3JIYHY_PUk7TrxFJZFGK Text version: Coming up: 10. Couldn't Treat Infectious Disease 9. Tattoos Will Become Less Popular 8. Rates of Cosmetic Surgery Will Decrease 7. Most People Will Have to Become Vegan 6. Cancer Treatment Would Stop 5. No More Major Surgery or Organ Transplants 4. Accidents Could be Death Sentences 3. Condom Sales Will Skyrocket 2. Child Birth Will Become Much More Dangerous 1. Economic Collapse Source/Further reading: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/E_coli_at_10000x,_original.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/Angel_tattoo.JPG https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Breast_implants_in_hand_01.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/2789694551_37beafc438_b_-_Grass_Fed_Beef_-_Ryan_Thompson_-_Flickr_-_USDAgov.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d5/Radiation_therapy.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e6/Flickr_-_Official_U.S._Navy_Imagery_-_Doctors_perform_surgery_together..jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Head_On_Collision.jpg https://pixabay.com/static/uploads/photo/2015/07/17/15/40/red-condoms-849407_960_720.jpg https://pixabay.com/static/uploads/photo/2014/05/31/09/01/woman-358779_960_720.jpg https://pixabay.com/static/uploads/photo/2013/11/22/06/30/crash-215512_960_720.jpg
Views: 33249 TopTenz
Penicillin Was Pioneered in Peoria at USDA-ARS Research Lab
 
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The era of antibiotics in medicine was essentially launched at a USDA-ARS research lab in Peoria, Illinois. USDA’s Patrick O’Leary has the story.
Views: 673 USDA
Poultry Production from Start to Finish
 
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In this episode we take a look at the poultry industry. Poultry is Virginia's largest commodity, and it's Rockingham County that was once known as the turkey capital of the world. In fact, today's modern poultry practices of using brooder houses instead of a free range was started by R.B. Strickler and Charles Wampler, Sr. of Harrisonburg. We were given the unique opportunity to see the poultry production process from start to finish, and in this episode, we share that with you. Then Chris Mullins shares tips on growing hearty mums, From the Ground Up. All on on this edition of Virginia Farming.
Views: 247283 WVPT Public Media
Usnea Natures Antibiotic
 
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Usnea Natures Antibiotic is a common sight for anyone who walks in the woods. It is the green tangly mass that hangs down from the dead trunks and branches of trees, especially pine trees, sometimes called "old man's beard. The appearance of usnea like a mass of cloth fibers immediately suggested itself to primitive people as a useful topical application to wounds and skin inflammation; it can be readily collected and pressed down to make a dressing. This turned out to be a valuable application not just in terms of its structure, but also because usnea contains potent antibacterial components that will help prevent wounds from getting infected and, thereby, contributes to more rapid healing. As a topical antiseptic, it has been used recently in making sophisticated skin creams, vaginal inserts, and mouth washes. Antiviral & Antifungal: Usnea is active against a number of viruses that present sores and lesions including herpes simplex, polyomavirus (a tumor virus), Junin virus, Tacaribe virus, and Epstein-Barr. It may be used as a wash for the treatment of Impetigo (staph or strep infections of the skin). Usnea has also shown to be effective as an antifungal against Candida albicans. In vitro research strongly supports Usnea's antimicrobial properties. Other Uses: Usnea has been reported to be active against a number of parasitical disease organisms as well as used as an antiproliferant for a number of cancer cell lines. Usnea also has shown anecdotal usefulness in the treatment of difficult to treat fish infections in aquariums and ponds. Usnea barbata has been used in cosmetic production for its antimicrobial and antifungal properties as a preservative and deodorant. Start The Awakening https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCKsz3sx5Q00Y2E8yzmzPkJQ Email ds813goforgreenliving@gmail.com PayPal-https://www.paypal.me/KristaU Amazon-https://www.amazon.com/gp/registry/wi... Instagram- https://www.instagram.com/goforgreenl... Twitter- https://twitter.com/Goforgreenlivin Google+ - https://plus.google.com/u/0/+goforgre... Pinterest- https://www.pinterest.com/ds813/ Goforgreenliving Facebook- https://www.facebook.com/Go-For-Green... Smith house of Gratitude Facebook- https://www.facebook.com/Smith-house-... Daniel's Facebook- https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?... Tumbler- https://www.tumblr.com/settings/blog/... (started today) reddit- https://www.reddit.com/user/Goforgree...
Views: 498 goforgreenliving
Antibiotic Use Facts in the Chicken Industry
 
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Facts about antibiotic use in the U.S. chicken industry
Views: 536 Chicken Roost
Penicillin: Discovery, Benefits and Resistance
 
06:10
Penicillin is a drug used to fight bacterial infection. Its accidental discovery ushered in a new age of medicine. It was hailed as a "miracle drug" that would eradicate infectious diseases. Today, there are many types of natural and synthetic types of penicillin, which are used to treat a wide range of ailments. However, over the years, some bacteria have become resistant to penicillin, making some infections difficult to treat. It isn't really known who first realized that mold contained medicinal qualities, but it is acknowledged that ancient Egyptians would poultice wounds with moldy bread, according to the American Chemical Society (ACS). Alexander Fleming, a professor of bacteriology in London, is credited with discovering penicillin in 1928. Returning from vacation, he started cleaning up his messy lab and noticed that some petri dishes containing Staphylococcus bacteria had been contaminated with a mold, Penicillium notatum, which was inhibiting the growth of the bacteria, according to Dr. Howard Markel in a column for PBS NewHour. Fleming researched the juice produced by the mold and determined that it killed many types of bacteria. His team then went on to isolate pure penicillin from the mold juice. "When I woke up just after dawn on September 28, 1928, I certainly didn't plan to revolutionize all medicine by discovering the world's first antibiotic, or bacteria killer. But I guess that was exactly what I did," Fleming later wrote about his discovery. Fleming didn't have the resources to fully develop his discovery. Other bacteriologists tried to purify penicillin but failed. Finally, in 1939, Howard Florey, a pathology professor at Oxford University, read Fleming's paper in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology, and he and his colleagues worked to purify and create useable penicillin. After churning out around 132 gallons (500 liters) of mold filtrate per week and testing on animals, they were finally able to try the new drug on a human. On February 12, 1941, Albert Alexander got the first dose of penicillin, according to the ACS. The treatment started to heal him of a life-threatening infection in just a few days. Unfortunately, the Oxford team ran out of the drug before Alexander was completely healed, and he died. The first successful treatment happened a year later in 1942. It was given to Anne Miller, a patient at New Haven Hospital in Connecticut who had suffered a miscarriage and developed an infection that led to blood poisoning. During World War II, penicillin was mass-produced and used to fight infections among soldiers. Throughout history, infections had killed more soldiers than battle injuries, Markel wrote. "In World War I, the death rate from bacterial pneumonia was 18 percent; in WWII, it fell to less than 1 percent." In 1945, Fleming, Florey and Florey's teammate, Ernst Chain, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of penicillin. Penicillin is given to patients with an infection caused by bacteria. As an antibiotic, it inhibits the growth of bacteria or kills it. It does this by preventing bacterial enzymes from creating cell wall growth. It also activates other enzymes so that they will break down the cell walls of microorganisms, as well, according to Encyclopedia Britannica. Sometimes penicillin is also prescribed to help medical problems not related to bacterial infections, such as leptospirosis, chlamydia in pregnant women, helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis or peptic ulcer disease, gas gangrene, Lyme disease and typhoid fever, according to the Mayo Clinic. Different kinds of penicillin are used for various infections. Some types of penicillin are amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin G and penicillin V. Though penicillin has saved many lives, it isn't always helpful for everyone. For example, some people have penicillin allergies that can cause hives, rashes, itching, anaphylaxis and other symptoms. Beyond allergies, penicillin is becoming less useful over time. At least 2 million people in the United States become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics each year, and at least 23,000 people die as a result, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Simply using antibiotics creates resistance, according to the CDC. While antibiotics kill bacteria causing illness, they also kill "good" bacteria that protect the body from infection. The drug-resistant bacteria grow and take over, and some bacteria give their drug resistance to other bacteria. Resistant germs spread to other patients from unclean hands or surfaces.
Views: 1154 News 7/24
MRSA Superbugs in Meat
 
04:37
The emergence of pathogens resistant to even our antibiotics of last resort has raised the specter of a “post-antibiotic age” in which drugs to fight infections may be useless. This has focused attention on the mass use of antibiotics in farm animal feed to promote growth and prevent infection in high density production. Subscribe to Dr. Greger’s free nutrition newsletter at https://www.nutritionfacts.org/subscribe and get a free recipe from his new HOW NOT TO DIE COOKBOOK. (All proceeds Dr. Greger receives from the sales of his books, DVDs, and speaking engagements go to support the 501c3 nonprofit that runs NutritionFacts.org.) I know I’ve already covered this before, but it continues to shock me that the meat industry can get away with something so forcefully and universally condemned by the public health community. What other industrial sector could get away with putting people at such risk? It speaks to the combined might of the livestock industry and the pharmaceutical industry in holding sway over our democratic process no matter what the human health consequences. If you’ve missed my other MRSA videos, check out: • Toxic Megacolon Superbug (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/toxic-megacolon-superbug/) • Airborne MRSA (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/airborne-mrsa/) • MRSA in U.S. Retail Meat (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/mrsa-in-u-s-retail-meat/) And for more on this critical issue in general: • Lowering Dietary Antibiotic Intake (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/lowering-dietary-antibiotic-intake/) • More Antibiotics in White Meat or Dark Meat? (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/more-antibiotics-in-white-meat-or-dark-meat/) • Meat Mythcrushers (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/meat-mythcrushers/) • Food Poisoning Bacteria Cross-Contamination (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/food-poisoning-bacteria-cross-contamination/) • Unsafe at Any Feed (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/unsafe-at-any-feed/) • Past the Age of Miracles: Facing a Post-Antibiotic Age (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/past-the-age-of-miracles-facing-a-post-antibiotic-age/) • Superbugs in Conventional vs. Organic Chicken (http://nutritionfacts.org/video/superbugs-in-conventional-vs-organic-chicken/) Have a question for Dr. Greger about this video? Leave it in the comment section at http://nutritionfacts.org/video/mrsa-superbugs-in-meat/ and he'll try to answer it! http://www.NutritionFacts.org • Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NutritionFacts.org • Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/nutrition_facts • Podcast: http://nutritionfacts.org/audio/ • Subscribe: http://http://nutritionfacts.org/subscribe/ • Donate: http://www.NutritionFacts.org/donate
Views: 25639 NutritionFacts.org
Chaitan Khosla (Stanford) Part 1: An Introduction to Polyketide Assembly Lines
 
35:47
https://www.ibiology.org/biochemistry/polyketide/ Talk Overview: Polyketide antibiotics include many of the most commonly used antibiotics in medicine today such as erythromycin, rapamycin and avermectin. In Part 1, Dr. Khosla describes the modular enzymes that synthesize these antibiotics, with each module adding to a growing polyketide chain in an assembly-line manner. Using the enzyme 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase (DEBS) as an example, he walks us through the multiple steps from simple precusor to complex product. Khosla also explains that a vast improvement in DNA sequencing in the past decade has led to the identification of many gene clusters encoding polyketide assembly lines. The products of these assembly lines are not known, however, suggesting that new and possibly useful antibiotics are yet to be discovered. Many of the polyketide assembly line enzymes are found in unusual bacteria or other organisms. In Part 2, Khosla explains that he and his colleagues have expressed the DNA encoding DEBS in E.coli. When the appropriate precursors and energy sources are added to these modified E.coli, they efficiently produce 6-deoxyerythronolide B. This system facilitates the study of each step of the DEBS assembly line both in vitro, using proteins purified from the system, and in vivo. Using these tools, Khosla and colleagues are able to probe the stereospecificity and side chain specificity of the assembly line. They are also learning how to efficiently rewire individual modules to produce novel polyketide products. In Part 3, Khosla asks how nature ensures that the product of one module in a polyketide synthesis pathway is passed on to the correct, subsequent module in the pathway? How is it that reactive intermediates are directed vectorially along the assembly line? Khosla explains that vectorial specificity is due to the protein-protein interactions of the faces of the different protein modules in the pathways. Speaker Biography: Chaitan Khosla is Professor of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Biochemistry at Stanford University. Khosla received his B. Tech from the Indian Institute of Technology, his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology and he was a post-doctoral fellow at the John Innes Centre in the U.K. Khosla’s research interests bring together the fields of chemistry and medicine. His lab uses assembly line polyketide synthases as a system to investigate the potential to program biosynthetic pathways to produce new and different antibiotics. Another area of research in Khosla’s lab focuses on understanding the molecular underpinnings of celiac disease. Specifically the possibility that transglutaminase2, the main autoantigen in celiac disease, may be a target for drug development. Khosla’s work has been recognized with numerous awards and honors including election to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering.
Views: 8050 iBiology
Foster Farms promotes new antibiotic-free chicken products
 
01:18
Saying the Millennial generation of shoppers wants to know how its food is raised and grown, Foster Farms this spring has begun producing chicken without antibiotics that are used for humans. Foster Farms' Communications Director Ira Brill explains the move.
Views: 82 TheCVBizJournal
A Public Health Crisis? Antibiotic resistance could kill millions? SWINE explores the truth.
 
16:00
SWINE exposes the horrors of factory farming and poses the question, "how long can we continue to treat animals in this way before it comes back to bite us?" The film looks at the dangers of antibiotic resistance and raises the alarm suggesting we MUST call an end to this form of farming immediately. So few people understand the implications and dangers of antibiotics resistance (amr) The film was produced for VIVA! public health chemistry Further Reading ----- ✖ How to change your diet and cut out out - http://www.viva.org.uk/change-your-diet ✖ Do animal products hurt our planet?: http://www.cowspiracy.com/facts/ FILMS THAT CONTINUE THE STORY ✖ Watch Cowspiracy: http://www.cowspiracy.com ✖ Watch Forks Over Knives: http://www.forksoverknives.com/the-film/ PRODUCE YOUR OWN FILMS ✖ Get Free music for your vegan films: http://www.mobygratis.com/ FILM CREDITS Created, Produced and Written by Robbie Lockie & Damien Clarkson Dramatisation Sequence directed by Remy Archer Documentary edited by Lewis Noll & Robbie Lockie Executive producers Timothy Graham Shieff Juliet Gellatley Melanie Light Production Assistant Tom Gaskin Graphic Designer & Art Director Robbie Lockie Drone Footage Jonathan Keeley Motion Graphics Byrone Lehmann Sound Design Robbie Lockie PR & Press Damien Clarkson Behind the Scenes Photography Jasper Wilkins Press Launch and Events Judy Nadel Translation volunteers Spanish: Vegano Cordobes & Adriana Polo Polish: Ula Bajcer With special thanks to brilliant people who have supported us Gregg Lowe,, Lewis Noll, Judy Nadel, James Light, Dan Howe (PETA), Jonathan Keeley (For his awesome drone footage) Kerry ‘McCarpet’ McCarthy, César ‘vegan speak’ Ferradas, Maria ‘vegan life’ Chiorando, Paul ‘Hench Herbivore’ Kerton, Michael Goodchild (The Vegan Activist), Ed ‘The Earthling’ Watkins, Luna Woods, Jamie “not your your milk” Paton, Anneka Svenska, Klaus ‘In the Greenhouse” Mitchell, Nicholas Jones, Emma ‘barefoot vegan’ Letessier, Luke & Andrew from Ecostorm & The Guardian Investigations team. Video Credits VIVA! Investigations ✖ ADDITIONAL VIDEO CREDITS ✖ LUCENT - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KArL5... Award Winning Documentary on Factory Farming Jonathan Keeley (For his awesome drone footage) PETA - Investigative Footage on UK Farms --------- ✖ Vegans at the end of the film ✖ Esther the Wonder Pig - https://www.youtube.com/user/estherth... Daily Denny - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCaoI... Vegan Hustle - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3R8... Happy Healthy 96 - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwLw... Tofu Fit Guy & Family - https://twitter.com/Tofu_fit_guy Vegan Geezer - https://www.youtube.com/user/VeganGeezer Mommy Tang - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCUrD... The Chic is Natural - https://www.youtube.com/user/backsyncfan James Aspey - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCcKF... Happy Healthy Vegan - https://www.youtube.com/user/HappyHea... Jon Venus - https://www.youtube.com/user/TheQuest... Vegan Physique - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Ft... Rich Roll - https://www.youtube.com/user/richroll66 ✖ Music featured in this video: ✖ µ-Ziq – Grape Nut Beats Pt.1 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gQsWi... Moby [Licensed and Approved] - https://soundcloud.com/moby ✖ DISCLAIMER: FAIR USE NOTICE this video may contain copyrighted material. Such material is made available for educational purposes only. This constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in Title 17 U.S.C. section 106A-117 of the US Copyright Law. ✖
Food Waste: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
 
17:50
Producers, sellers, and consumers waste tons of food. John Oliver discusses the shocking amount of food we don’t eat. Connect with Last Week Tonight online... Subscribe to the Last Week Tonight YouTube channel for more almost news as it almost happens: www.youtube.com/user/LastWeekTonight Find Last Week Tonight on Facebook like your mom would: http://Facebook.com/LastWeekTonight Follow us on Twitter for news about jokes and jokes about news: http://Twitter.com/LastWeekTonight Visit our official site for all that other stuff at once: http://www.hbo.com/lastweektonight
Views: 10177180 LastWeekTonight
Super bacteria-targeting microbes found in Korea's Nakdong River
 
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슈퍼박테리아 잡는 토종 미생물 낙동강에서 발견...천연 항균제 새길 Microbes that target antibiotic-resistant superbugs have been discovered in Korean waters. The finding is expected to have broad applications... and could serve as a natural agent to fight common ailments. Park Se-young has the details. At the Nakdong River in the city of Sangju in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, a researcher collects samples of microbes. He and other members of the research team have found nearly 200 trillion microbes in the contaminated water, including harmful bacteria like colon bacillus and salmonella. They've also found Paucibacter CR182 and four other species that have the ability to inhibit the growth of antibiotic-resistant superbacteria, ...which cause hard-to-cure diseases like pneumonia and septicemia. "We separated the microbes from the water sample and discovered, through numerous screenings, microbes with antimicrobial effects." The newly discovered microbes are ideal for use as natural antimicrobial agents, feed additives and even health foods. The research team, which secured the basic technology for mass production of the microbes and applied for a patent, will continue its research and expand the microbes' use. Park Se-young, Arirang News. Visit ‘Arirang News’ Official Pages Facebook(NEWS): http://www.facebook.com/newsarirang Homepage: http://www.arirang.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/arirangtv Twitter: http://twitter.com/arirangworld Instagram: http://instagram.com/arirangworld
Views: 248 ARIRANG NEWS
Chaitan Khosla (Stanford) Part 2: Dissecting Polyketide Assembly Lines
 
28:31
http://www.iBiology.org Talk Overview: Polyketide antibiotics include many of the most commonly used antibiotics in medicine today such as erythromycin, rapamycin and avermectin. In Part 1, Dr. Khosla describes the modular enzymes that synthesize these antibiotics, with each module adding to a growing polyketide chain in an assembly-line manner. Using the enzyme 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase (DEBS) as an example, he walks us through the multiple steps from simple precusor to complex product. Khosla also explains that a vast improvement in DNA sequencing in the past decade has led to the identification of many gene clusters encoding polyketide assembly lines. The products of these assembly lines are not known, however, suggesting that new and possibly useful antibiotics are yet to be discovered. Many of the polyketide assembly line enzymes are found in unusual bacteria or other organisms. In Part 2, Khosla explains that he and his colleagues have expressed the DNA encoding DEBS in E.coli. When the appropriate precursors and energy sources are added to these modified E.coli, they efficiently produce 6-deoxyerythronolide B. This system facilitates the study of each step of the DEBS assembly line both in vitro, using proteins purified from the system, and in vivo. Using these tools, Khosla and colleagues are able to probe the stereospecificity and side chain specificity of the assembly line. They are also learning how to efficiently rewire individual modules to produce novel polyketide products. In Part 3, Khosla asks how nature ensures that the product of one module in a polyketide synthesis pathway is passed on to the correct, subsequent module in the pathway? How is it that reactive intermediates are directed vectorially along the assembly line? Khosla explains that vectorial specificity is due to the protein-protein interactions of the faces of the different protein modules in the pathways. Speaker Biography: Chaitan Khosla is Professor of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Biochemistry at Stanford University. Khosla received his B. Tech from the Indian Institute of Technology, his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology and he was a post-doctoral fellow at the John Innes Centre in the U.K. Khosla’s research interests bring together the fields of chemistry and medicine. His lab uses assembly line polyketide synthases as a system to investigate the potential to program biosynthetic pathways to produce new and different antibiotics. Another area of research in Khosla’s lab focuses on understanding the molecular underpinnings of celiac disease. Specifically the possibility that transglutaminase2, the main autoantigen in celiac disease, may be a target for drug development. Khosla’s work has been recognized with numerous awards and honors including election to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering.
Views: 3981 iBiology
Zithromax (Azithromycin) is a Semi-Synthetic Antibiotic
 
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Z-pack from https://levitraeurope.com/buy-zithromax-usa.html Zithromax is made use of for treating mild to small infections caused by certain bacterias. Due to its main active ingredient azalide, which provides bacteriostatic effect. Binding to 50S-ribosomal subunit, it inhibits protein synthesis and slows the growth and reproduction of bacteria down.
Views: 1584 Victor Rubc
How to Grow Giant Clams
 
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Our beautiful new 222-page ebook, SAVING GIANTS: Cultivation and Conservation of Tridacnid Clams (by Gerald Heslinga, 2013) is now available for download http://store.blurb.com/ebooks/374835-saving-giants [or go to blurb.com and search for SAVING GIANTS] References: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1nOk6LC1W8nmrO9AK44piHh6o1TDovtUl3qVDf698RKA/edit?hl=en&pli=1# Palau's MMDC (Micronesian Mariculture Demonstration Center), founded in the late 1960's by James McVey of NOAA, hold's the distinction of being the world's first successful giant clam hatchery and ocean farm. Masashi Yamaguchi and Steve Jameson achieved successful laboratory-scale spawning and larval culture with several tridacnid clam species in Palau and Guam in the early 1970's. This work was continued in the mid- to-late 1970's by Hamner, Beckvar, Heslinga and Braley with further larval culture and production of small numbers of juvenile clams. In the early 1980's true mass production of tens of thousands of juvenile clams, along with development of land-based and ocean-based nursery technologies, was achieved at the MMDC by Heslinga, Perron, Orak, Watson and Isamu. Their work continued through the mid-1990's with substantial assistance from Hanser, Fitt and Hastie. Milestones achieved included mass production of all seven species of Tridacnids found locally, the closure of the life cycle of Tridacna derasa in the Ocean Nursery (1984) and the closure of the life cycle of Hippopus hippopus entirely in land-based tanks in 1993. Over two million seed clams and over 100 tons of cultured tridacnid clams were produced on site at MMDC by 1994. More than 100 individuals from Palau and the wider Pacific completed the MMDC Clam Hatchery Training Course, and hundreds of local and international shipments of clams were made for reef stocking, local clam gardens and the demonstration of seafood, aquarium and shellcraft markets. Research conducted at MMDC led to new understanding of the clam/algal symbiosis, the control of major ocean predators through better cage designs, the world's first captive breeding of algal-grazing Trochus snails for clam/snail co-culture, the use of antibiotics in giant clam larval culture and the use of inorganic nitrogen supplements (DIN) for growth enhancement in land-based culture tanks. These advances are in wide use throughout the tropical Pacific islands today (2010). The first hatchery manual on Giant Clam Farming was written by the MMDC staff and published by the Pacific Fisheries Development Foundation (NMFS/NOAA) in 1990. The manual was bundled with this video and made available to all interested parties in the region. By 1994 the MMDC Giant Clam Hatchery and Gift Shop had become Palau's top land-based tourist destination, hosting thousands of visitors annually. MMDC's production tank farm underwent a 10-fold expansion between 1987 and 1994, from six to 64 units with 5-10 ton seawater capacity. The MMDC's revenues from sales of cultured giant clam products (seed, meat and shells) from 1990 to 1994 totaled US$745,000. These sales were made to local restaurants, international seafood markets, tourists, other Pacific Island governments, and USA and European saltwater aquarium wholesalers. [This figure does not include foundation grants and contracts generated by the hatchery staff to fund a variety of research projects related to clams and clam mariculture.] Selected References: Beckvar, N. 1981. Cultivation, spawning and growth of the giant clams Tridacna gigas, T. derasa and T. squamosa in Palau, Caroline Islands. Aquaculture 24: 21-30. Fitt, W. K., C. R. Fisher, and R. R. Trench. 1986. Contribution of the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium microadriaticum to the nutrition, growth and survival of larval and juvenile tridacnid clams. Aquaculture 55: 5-22. Fitt, W. K., G. A. Heslinga, and T. C. Watson. 1992. Use of antibiotics in the mariculture of giant clams (F. Tridacnidae). Aquaculture 104: 1-10. Fitt, W. K., G. A. Heslinga, and T. C. Watson. 1993. Utilization of dissolved inorganic nutrients in growth and mariculture of the tridacnid clam Tridacna derasa. Aquaculture 109: 27-38. Hastie, L. C., T. C. Watson, T. Isamu and G. A. Heslinga. 1992. Effect of nutrient enrichment on Tridacna derasa seed: dissolved inorganic nitrogen increases growth rate. Aquaculture 106: 41-49. Heslinga, G. A. 1989. Biology and culture of the giant clam. In: Manzi, J. and M. Castagna (eds.), Clam Mariculture in North America. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 461 p. Heslinga, G. A. and W. K. Fitt. 1987. The domestication of reef-dwelling clams, BioScience 37: 332-339. Heslinga, G. A., Perron, F. E. and Orak, O. 1984. Mass culture of giant clams (f. Tridacnidae) in Palau. Aquaculture 39: 197-215. Heslinga, G. A., Watson, T. C. and T. Isamu. 1990. Giant Clam Farming. Pacific Fisheries Development Foundation (NMFS/NOAA). 179 p..
Views: 32029 GeraldHeslinga
Korea invests in aquaculture in anticipation of growing seafood demand
 
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국내양식업, 잡는 산업에서 기르는 산업으로 Countries around the world are investing in clean technology to raise fish in aquaculture farms... to meet the growing demand for seafood. And Korea is no exception. Aquaculture technology in Korea: Our News Feature tonight with Kim Hye-sung. Yoon Jong-hwa manages a new aquafarm that opened on Korea's South Sea that cultivates pacific white shrimp. He will take his first crop--one ton of five-month old shrimp-- to market across the country next week,...the first time since the farm opened in June. The farm uses an advanced aquafarming method called biofloc that purifies tank water... as microorganisms that feed on fish waste, like ammonia,... become food for shrimp when fully grown, meaning there is zero waste in the process. "Biofloc technology makes our business lucrative and eco-friendly. The technology enables us to adjust the water temperature and reuse 99 percent of the water without using any antibiotics. We can cultivate shrimp any time of the year and we produce ten times more shrimp than other aquafarms of the same size." Aquaculture, the farming of fish under controlled conditions, has been used in Korea since the 1970s to raise marine plants, and in recent years, the government has invested in eco-friendly aquafarming technology like biofloc to meet the growing demand for seafood. "The ocean's marine resources are limited, and if people keep catching fish at the current rate, these resources will disappear by 2050. To manage the limited supply of fish and satisfy the growing demand for seafood, cultivating fish using aquaculture is the only answer." Here at the National Institute of Fisheries Science, eel, a favorite with Koreans, grow at a healthy rate in these round tanks. "The white liquid you see is the eel's sperm." Researchers are inseminating the sperm with eggs to breed eel, and they say finding the right timing and feed are critical, which is why it takes decades to perfect the process. To speed things up, the institute has invested over five million U.S. dollars in eel aquaculture since 2008. Four years later, in 2012, they cultivated artificial eel eggs, and three years after that, they hatched their first glass eel, which produced its own eggs. "Researchers are successfully breeding eel here in a completely controlled environment. Not only that, in terms of pollack, they also became first in the world to do so." Pollack have been absent from Korean waters for more than a decade due to overfishing and rising ocean temperatures. But Korean scientists have developed a feed that can survive in low temperatures...and for the first time they raised a second generation of pollack this year. Korea has also begun exporting new technologies like biofloc... and earlier this year... shrimp were raised in the middle of the Sahara Desert in Algeria... using tap water. But experts say that for Korea to become a major player in the global aquafarming industry, greater investment and policy changes are needed. "In Korea, fish farms are small operations with about three farmers each, which helps produce a diverse range of fish but makes mass production difficult. A change in the current aquaculture law, which bars conglomerates, is needed." For instance, Norway, which exports 10 billion U.S. dollars worth of seafood annually, or 20 times more than Korea...have companies leading seafood production. "Norway, the world's largest exporter of salmon, has companies managing the entire value chain, reducing costs and maximizing benefits. Countries like Denmark or Japan are also investing in clean technologies like smart-farming and equipment for high-quality mass production." That's why the Institute is testing a remote-control system called RAS, which is scheduled to be commercialized by 2019. "The system lets people check temperatures, acidity levels and water circulation from afar, which could reduce labor costs and facilitate mass production." With the global population expected to reach nine billion by 2050, the demand for protein is expected to grow by 70 percent. And the UN Food and Agriculture Organization has pointed to fish as a promising future source of protein in the future, And to meet that demand, here in Korea, researchers are working to advance the technology... so fish farmers can make the transition from catching fish to raising them. Kim Hyesung, Arirang News. Visit ‘Arirang News’ Official Pages Facebook(NEWS): http://www.facebook.com/newsarirang Homepage: http://www.arirang.com Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/arirangtv Twitter: http://twitter.com/arirangworld Instagram: http://instagram.com/arirangworld
Views: 3164 ARIRANG NEWS
New bacteria will kill millions
 
01:03
The world didn't manage to realize what the Ebola is, in the USA already found the new danger menacing to the human race. It is about the special bacterium capable to compete with antibiotics. Besides, microorganisms, according to researchers of University of Texas, can be transferred in the airborne way. Very possibly it means that epidemic wave will cover soon all of us. After all the superbacterium will be able to transfer the resistance to modern drugs and other monocelled. "Evil" was revealed during studying by the American scientists of the dust transferred to Texas thanks to windy weather from a zone of livestock farms. Research set toxicologists thinking as far as in general the air inhaled by us is safe. Professors predict that to the middle of the century men's inability to cope with the bacteria resistant to strong drugs, will bring 10 million additional deaths
Views: 1933 Pravda Report