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The Epic Story of Wealth, Power, and Fairness That Gave America the Income Tax (2002)
 
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In 1894, an amendment was attached to the Wilson–Gorman Tariff Act that attempted to impose a federal tax of two percent on incomes over $4,000 (equal to $111,000 in 2016).[13] The federal income tax was strongly favored in the South, and it was moderately supported in the eastern North Central states, but it was strongly opposed in the Far West and the Northeastern States (with the exception of New Jersey).[14] The tax was derided as "un-Democratic, inquisitorial, and wrong in principle".[15] In Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co., the U.S. Supreme Court declared certain taxes on incomes – such as those on property under the 1894 Act – to be unconstitutionally unapportioned direct taxes. The Court reasoned that a tax on income from property should be treated as a tax on "property by reason of its ownership" and so should be required to be apportioned. The reasoning was that taxes on the rents from land, the dividends from stocks, and so forth, burdened the property generating the income in the same way that a tax on "property by reason of its ownership" burdened that property. After Pollock, while income taxes on wages (as indirect taxes) were still not required to be apportioned by population, taxes on interest, dividends, and rental income were required to be apportioned by population. The Pollock ruling made the source of the income (e.g., property versus labor, etc.) relevant in determining whether the tax imposed on that income was deemed to be "direct" (and thus required to be apportioned among the states according to population) or, alternatively, "indirect" (and thus required only to be imposed with geographical uniformity).[16] Dissenting in Pollock, Justice John Marshall Harlan stated: When, therefore, this court adjudges, as it does now adjudge, that Congress cannot impose a duty or tax upon personal property, or upon income arising either from rents of real estate or from personal property, including invested personal property, bonds, stocks, and investments of all kinds, except by apportioning the sum to be so raised among the States according to population, it practically decides that, without an amendment of the Constitution – two-thirds of both Houses of Congress and three-fourths of the States concurring – such property and incomes can never be made to contribute to the support of the national government.[17] Members of Congress responded to Pollock by expressing widespread concern that many of the wealthiest Americans had consolidated too much economic power.[18] In Commissioner v. Glenshaw Glass Co., 348 U.S. 426 (1955), the Supreme Court laid out what has become the modern understanding of what constitutes "gross income" to which the Sixteenth Amendment applies, declaring that income taxes could be levied on "accessions to wealth, clearly realized, and over which the taxpayers have complete dominion". Under this definition, any increase in wealth – whether through wages, benefits, bonuses, sale of stock or other property at a profit, bets won, lucky finds, awards of punitive damages in a lawsuit, qui tam actions – are all within the definition of income, unless the Congress makes a specific exemption, as it has for items such as life insurance proceeds received by reason of the death of the insured party,[48] gifts, bequests, devises and inheritances,[49] and certain scholarships.[50] On December 22, 2006, a three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit vacated[54] its unanimous decision (of August 2006) in Murphy v. Internal Revenue Service and United States.[55] In an unrelated matter, the court had also granted the government's motion to dismiss Murphy's suit against the Internal Revenue Service. Under federal sovereign immunity, a taxpayer may sue the federal government, but not a government agency, officer, or employee (with some exceptions). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sixteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
Views: 1769 The Film Archives
Versus War on Drugs Debate
 
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To liberalise or prohibit, that is the question. And to answer it the masters of live debate have joined forces with the masters of web technology to create a never-seen-before combination of Oxford debating and Silicon Valley prowess. Prohibitionists argue that legalising anything increases its consumption. The world has enough of a problem with legal drugs like alcohol and tobacco, so why add to the problem by legalising cannabis, cocaine and heroin? The liberalisers say prohibition doesn’t work. By declaring certain drugs illegal we haven’t reduced consumption or solved any problem. Instead we’ve created an epidemic of crime, illness, failed states and money laundering. Richard Branson, Russell Brand, Misha Glenny, Geoffrey Robertson and Eliot Spitzer. Experts, orators and celebrities who’ve made this their cause – they locked horns in a new Intelligence²/Google+ debate format. Some of our speakers will be on stage in London, others beamed in from Mexico City or São Paulo or New Orleans, all thanks to the “Hangout” tool on Google+.
Views: 229628 versusdebates
Rep. Jamie Raskin and Trent England Debate "Electoral College v. Popular Vote"
 
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Trent England and Rep. Jamie Raskin debate the merits of the electoral college versus the popular vote in U.S. presidential elections at a panel discussion at Georgetown Law on January 24. The discussion was moderated by Georgetown Law Distinguished Visitor from Practice Paul Smith, who argued the Wisconsin gerrymandering case of Gill v. Whitford in the Supreme Court in October.
6/14/18 National Advisory Committee (NAC) Spring Meeting (Day 1)
 
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Click on the time to jump to that section of the meeting. 00:05:28 AM Opening Remarks Auditorium Nancy Bates, Designated Federal Officer 00:17:28 AM Chair Remarks Ditas Katague, Chair, National Advisory Committee 00:38:44 AM Executive Remarks Enrique Lamas, Associate Director for Demographic Programs, Performing the Non-Exclusive Functions and Duties of the Deputy Director 01:14:33 AM Update on the 2020 Census Presenter: Albert E. Fontenot Jr., Associate Director, Decennial Census Programs Directorate 01:49:00 NAC Discussant Arturo Vargas -- Committee Discussion 02:35:16 *BREAK* 02:49:33 AM Update on Language Services Operation Presenter: Jennifer Kim, Decennial Census Management Division Committee Discussion NAC Discussant John Yang -- Committee Discussion 03:42:37 *WORKING LUNCH* 04:05:46 Demonstration on Recruiting and Assessment Presenter: Viola Lewis Willis, Decennial Contracts Execution Office NAC Discussant Thomas A. Saenz -- Committee Discussion 05:15:52 Cyber Security in the 2020 Census Presenter: Kevin Smith, Associate Director for Information Technology and Chief Information Officer Committee Discussion 06:00:30 *BREAK* 06:00:57 NAC Members Photo 06:27:43 Update on Integrated Partnership and Communications Program Presenters: Maria Olmedo-Malagon, Decennial Communications and Kendall Johnson, 2020 Census Program Management Office 06:50:55 NAC Discussant Meghan Maury -- Committee Discussion 07:16:10 NAC Committee Discussion and Formulation of Recommendations Moderators: Ditas Katague, Chair and Carol Gore, Vice Chair, National Advisory Committee 08:26:07 Meeting Adjourned Nancy Bates, Designated Federal Officer
Views: 926 uscensusbureau
Supreme Court: The Term in Review (2015–2016) Part 1 of 2
 
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Four of the nation's top legal scholars discuss and analyze the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court's 2015–2016 Term that are most likely to affect the work of federal judges in the coming years. First Amendment, Fourteenth Amendment, Sixth Amendment, Federalism and Separation of Powers, Federal Statutes, reproductive rights and RFRA, federal courts and civil procedure, criminal law, and criminal procedure, are among the topics explored and explained. (July 2016) Faculty: John S. Cooke (Federal Judicial Center), Jim Chance (Federal Judicial Center), Erwin Chemerinsky (University of California Irvine, School of Law), Michelle Harner (University of Maryland School of Law), Evan Tsen Lee (University of California, Hastings College of the Law), Laurie Levenson (Loyola Law School), Suzanna Sherry (Vanderbilt University Law School), John R. Thomas (Georgetown Law Center), and Elizabeth C. Wiggins (Federal Judicial Center). Part 1 of 2 Introduction and First Amendment A look at Heffernan v. City of Patterson - a case that asked whether a person can recover for the violation of a constitutional right even when he did not exercise it. Fourteenth Amendment The Equal Protection and Due Process clauses are the focus of four cases regarding affirmative action, legislative redistricting and whether a judge who had acted as a lawyer in a defendant's case can later sit as a judge in an appeal related to it. Federal Courts and Civil Procedure The roles and responsibilities of federal courts in a number of different circumstances. Federalism and Separation of Powers The pre-emptive effect of the Federal Arbitration Act, the nature of standing in federal courts and the role of Congress in defining judicial remedies are the topics of three decisions in this discussion. Federal Statutes Finding a prevailing party and a statute of limitations restriction under the EEOC and exceptions under the Federal Tort Claims Act are the subjects of this panel's decisions. Reproductive Rights and Religious Freedom A reproductive rights decision striking down a Texas statute and a per curiam opinion asking the parties to resolve their differences based on "new facts." Bankruptcy Bankruptcy law decisions that address what is needed to find "actual fraud" by a debtor and Puerto Rico's authority to deal with its debt crisis under the federal Bankruptcy Code are discussed.
Views: 1804 United States Courts
10/27/17 : 2020 Census Quarterly Program Management Review (PMR)
 
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2020 Census Program Management Review October 27, 2017 12:30 - 5 PM
Views: 1069 uscensusbureau
Impact Of Obamacare On Job Creators And Their Decision To Offer Health Insurance
 
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Impact Of Obamacare On Job Creators And Their Decision To Offer Health Insurance - House Oversight - 2011-07-28 - House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. Subcommittee on Health Care and the District of Columbia. Witnesses: Mr. Andrew Puzder, CEO of CKE Restaurants, (Hardees and Carl's Jr.); Mr. Grady Payne, President of Connor Industries; Ms. Victoria J. Braden, President and CEO of Braden Benefit Strategies, Inc.; Mr. J. Michael Brewer, President of Lockton Benefit Group; Mr. Terry Gardiner, Vice President of Small Business Majority; Mr. Will Morey, President and CEO of Morey's Piers. Video provided by U.S. House of Representatives.
Views: 4739 HouseResourceOrg
School Board Meeting August 17, 2017 CC
 
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sbm2017081700 full
Views: 31 APS Video Services
SCOTUS Obamacare Individual Mandate Oral Arguments March 27, 2012
 
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http://www.supremecourt.gov/oral_arguments/argument_transcripts/11-398-Tuesday.pdf Supreme Court Oral Arguments on the Individual Mandate of Obamacare. March 27, 2012 JUSTICE SCALIA: You're saying that all the discussion we had earlier about how this is one big uniform scheme and the Commerce Clause, blah, blah, blah,blah, really doesn't matter. This is a tax, and the Federal Government could simply have said, without all of the rest of this legislation, could simply have said, everybody who doesn't buy health insurance at a certain age will be taxed so much money, right? GENERAL VERRILLI: It used its powers together to solve the problem of the market not - JUSTICE SCALIA: Yes, but you didn't need that. GENERAL VERRILLI -- providing affordable coverage - JUSTICE SCALIA: You didn't need that. If it's a tax, it's only -- raising money is enough. GENERAL VERRILLI: It is justifiable under its tax power. JUSTICE SCALIA: Okay. Extraordinary. 55:30
Views: 5683 matt605
School Board Meeting August 17, 2017 CC
 
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0:00:00 Opening 0:00:54 Recognition: Moment of Silence for Charlottesville, VA Violence 0:07:20 Announcements 0:16:14 Consent Items 0:30:39 Citizen Comment on Non-Agenda Items 1:14:23 Monitoring Item: Academic Performance Update 2:07:32 Monitoring Item: Update on Policies Review 2:29:25 Action Item: New School Board Policy 10-4.2 Electronic Participation in Meetings by Individual Members 2:30:57 Action Item: Purchase of Property on N. Culpeper Street 3:01:07 Action Item: Personnel Matter 3:01:49 Information Items 1-3 (Combined): Revision of Select School Board Policies; Revision to School Board Policy 35-8.3 Contracts and Work Schedules; Revision to School Board Policy 35-8.6 Telecommuting 3:04:53 Information Item: Revision to School Board Policy 50-1.10 Naming of Facilities (REMOVED FROM AGENDA) 3:05:53 Information Item: Construction Contract Award-Full GMP for the Relocation of Administrative Offices to Sequoia Plaza Two 3:11:52 Information Item: Contract Amendment for Construction Management Services for the Abingdon Project 3:16:29 Information Item: Determination to use Construction Management at Risk Delivery Method for the New Elementary School at Reed 3:21:15 Information/Action Item: Parking License Agreement with Ethiopian Community Development Council for Fleet Elementary School
Views: 52 AETVaps
National Federation of Independent Businesses v. Sebelius: Oral Argument - March 27, 2012 (Part 2)
 
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Facts: Check out Oyez's deep-dive into the background of the Affordable Care Act cases. Amid intense public interest, Congress passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), which became effective March 23, 2010. The ACA sought to address the fact that millions of Americans had no health insurance, yet actively participated in the health care market, consuming health care services for which they did not pay. The ACA contained a minimum coverage provision by amending the tax code and providing an individual mandate, stipulating that by 2014, non-exempt individuals who failed to purchase and maintain a minimum level of health insurance must pay a tax penalty. The ACA also contained an expansion of Medicaid, which states had to accept in order to receive Federal funds for Medicaid, and an employer mandate to obtain health coverage for employees. Shortly after Congress passed the ACA, Florida and 12 other states brought actions in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Florida seeking a declaration that the ACA was unconstitutional on several grounds. These states were subsequently joined by 13 additional states, the National Federation of Independent businesses, and individual plaintiffs Kaj Ahburg and Mary Brown. The plaintiffs argued that: (1) the individual mandate exceeded Congress' enumerated powers under the Commerce Clause; (2) the Medicaid expansions were unconstitutionally coercive; and (3) the employer mandate impermissibly interfered with state sovereignty. The District Court first addressed whether the plaintiffs had standing to bring the lawsuit. It determined that Brown had standing to challenge the minimum coverage provision because she did not have health insurance and had to make financial arrangements to ensure compliance with the provision, which would go into effect in 2014. The court further determined that Idaho and Utah had standing because each state had enacted a statute purporting to exempt their residents from the minimum coverage provision. The court also concluded that the Anti-Injunction Act did not bar the suit. The District Court then addressed the constitutional questions. It ruled that the individual mandate provision was not a valid exercise of Congress' commerce or taxing powers. The court held the entire act invalid because the mandate could not be severed from any other provision. The court dismissed the states' challenge to the employer mandates and granted judgment to the federal government on the Medicaid expansions, finding insufficient support for the contention that the spending legislation was unconstitutionally coercive. A panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit affirmed 2-to-1 the District Court's holdings as to the Medicaid expansions and the individual mandate. But it also reversed the District Court, holding that the individual mandate could be severed without invalidating the remainder of the ACA. Question: Is the suit brought by respondents to challenge the minimum coverage provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act barred by the Anti-Injunction Act, 2 U.S.C. 7421(a)? Does Congress have power under Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution, specifically under the Commerce Clause or the Taxing and Spending Clause, to require most Americans to purchase health insurance? Is the individual mandate severable from the ACA? Did Congress exceed its enumerated powers and violate principles of federalism when it pressured States into accepting conditions that Congress could not impose directly by threatening to withhold all federal funding under Medicaid, the single largest grant-in-aid program? For more information about this case see: https://www.oyez.org/cases/2011/11-393 Section 1: 00:00:05 Section 2: 00:56:45 Section 3: 01:27:08 Section 4: 01:34:16 Section 5: 01:34:50 Section 6: 01:57:20 PuppyJusticeAutomated videos are created by a program written by Adam Schwalm. This program is available on github here: https://github.com/ALSchwalm/PuppyJusticeAutomated The audio and transcript used in this video is provided by the Chicago-Kent College of Law under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. See this link for details: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
HHS v. Florida, Day 2 of Supreme Court Oral Arguments, March 27, 2012
 
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Day 2 of the Supreme Court's arguments in Department of Health and Human Services v. Florida were held on March 27, 2012, on the following question: Department of Health and Human Services v. Florida Docket No., 11-398 (Minimum Coverage Provision) Argument Date: Tuesday, March 27, 2012 Questions Presented Beginning in 2014, the minimum coverage provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Pub. L. No. 111-148, 124 Stat. 119, amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-152, 124 Stat. 1029, will require non-exempted individuals to maintain a minimum level of health insurance or pay a tax penalty. 26 U.S.C.A. 5000A. The question presented is: 1. Whether Congress had the power under Article I of the Constitution to enact the minimum coverage provision. For more information please visit: http://www.supremecourt.gov/Search.aspx?FileName=/docketfiles/11-398.htm
Views: 3937 CaliforniaAppeal
Alimony
 
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Alimony (also called aliment (Scotland), maintenance (England, Northern Ireland, Wales, Canada), spousal support (U.S., Canada) and spousal maintenance (Australia)) is a legal obligation on a person to provide financial support to his or her spouse before or after marital separation or divorce. The obligation arises from the divorce law or family law of each country. Traditionally, alimony was paid by a husband to his former wife, but since the 1970s there have been moves in many Western countries towards gender equality with a corresponding recognition that a former husband may also be entitled to alimony from his former wife. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 52 Audiopedia
Mississippi
 
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Mississippi i/ˌmɪsɨˈsɪpi/ is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital and largest city with 175,437 people in 2012 up 1.1% from the 2010 U.S. Census with 173,514. The name of the state derives from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary, whose name comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi . Mississippi is the 32nd most extensive and the 31st most populous of the 50 United States. The state is heavily forested outside of the Mississippi Delta area, which was cleared for cotton cultivation in the 19th century. Today, its catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. The state symbol is the Magnolia grandiflora tree. The state's flower is the Magnolia and the state bird is the Mockingbird. Mississippi has the lowest median household income, making it the poorest state in the nation. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Public domain image source in video
Views: 577 encyclopediacc
10/22/14: White House Press Briefing
 
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White House Press Briefings are conducted most weekdays from the James S. Brady Press Briefing Room in the West Wing.
Views: 3399 The Obama White House
United States  - Wiki
 
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The United States of America USA commonly known as the United States U S or America is a constitutional federal republic composed of states a federal district five major self governing territories ... Creative Commons 2.0 Wikipedia.com Beta Test
Views: 2132 Wiki for Blind
United States  - Wiki
 
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The United States of America m r k USA commonly known as the United States U S or America is a constitutional federal republic composed of states a federal district five major self governing territ... Creative Commons 2.0 Wikipedia.com Beta Test
Views: 1628 Wiki for Blind
The Lost World (2 of 5) (audiobook)
 
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🌞 Support the channel: https://www.patreon.com/The16thCavern Subtitles available. Audio courtesy of LibriVox. Read by: Robin Cotter, Lizzie Driver, Reynard T. Fox, Claire Goget, Scott Mather, Menno, and Cori Samuel. CLICK HERE for MORE VIDEOS! http://www.youtube.com/The16thCavern
Views: 1433 The 16th Cavern
Merchants of Doubt: Panel and Q&A | Global Voices Conference Series
 
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On November 16th, former congressman Bob Inglis (R-SC) visited International House for a screening of the documentary Merchants of Doubt, an event co-sponsored by the University of Chicago's Energy Policy Institute. Inglis represented South Carolina’s 4th District, which covers the highly conservative Greenville-Spartanburg area, from 1993 to 1998 and again from 2005 to 2010. During his second term in Congress, he advocated for a tax on carbon pollution, to be offset by cutting taxes elsewhere. This position put him at odds with other conservatives, and in 2010, Inglis lost his congressional seat to a primary challenger. The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library recognized Inglis’s commitment to the environment in the face of political pressure by presenting him with its 2015 Profile in Courage Award. After leaving Congress, Inglis founded the Energy and Enterprise Initiative, which engages conservatives on the issue of climate change. You can learn more about this group at its website, RepublicEn.org.
CCC Board of Governors Meeting | January 2017, Part A
 
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The California Community Colleges Board of Governors sets policy and provides guidance for the 72 districts and 113 colleges that constitute the system. The 17-member board is appointed by the governor and formally interacts with state and federal officials and other organizations. The board selects a chancellor for the system. The chancellor, through a formal process of consultation, brings recommendations to the board.
Vermont
 
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Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Vermont is the 6th least extensive and the 2nd least populous of the 50 United States after Wyoming. It is the only New England state not bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Lake Champlain forms half of Vermont's western border, which it shares with the state of New York. The Green Mountains are within the state. Vermont is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east across the Connecticut River, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Public domain image source in video
Views: 357 encyclopediacc
4/8/15 : 2020 Census Quarterly Program Management Review (PMR) [Part 1]
 
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On April 8, 2015, the U.S. Census Bureau held its quarterly 2020 Census Program Management Review. The review focused on the path to reaching major 2020 Census design decisions.
Views: 346 uscensusbureau
November 2013 Board of Governors Meeting - Day 1, Part 2
 
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The California Community Colleges Board of Governors sets policy and provides guidance for the 72 districts and 112 colleges that constitute the system. The 17-member board is appointed by the governor and formally interacts with state and federal officials and other organizations. The board selects a chancellor for the system. The chancellor, through a formal process of consultation, brings recommendations to the board.
Establishing Provisional Balloting Process
 
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A bill that would establish a process for provisional balloting, whereby votes cast are counted following the verification of proper voter registration, comes before the Senate Elections Committee
Tyrone Brooks, Reflections on Georgia Politics
 
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ROGP 085. Tyrone Brooks interviewed by Bob Short, September 2, 2009. Tyrone L. Brooks was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives as a Democrat in 1980. He has sat on numerous committees, including Economic Development and Tourism, Governmental Affairs and Retirement, and Appropriations. Brooks has served as president of the Georgia Association of Black Elected Officials, and is a member of the Georgia Legislative Black Caucus. Brooks discusses his activities as a civil rights activist, his time in the legislature, and his work with the SCLC. From the Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies. For more information, see: http://russelldoc.galib.uga.edu/russell/view?docId=ead/RBRL220ROGP.085-ead.xml
House Session 2012-06-28 (18:12:49-19:17:01)
 
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One Minute Speeches (15 per side) H.Res. __ - Resolution recommending that the House of Representatives find Eric H. Holder, Jr., Attorney General, U.S. Department of Justice, in contempt of Congress for refusal to comply with a subpoena duly issued by the committee on Oversight and Government Reform (Closed Rule, One Hour of Debate) H.Res. 706 - Authorizing the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform to initiate or intervene in judicial proceedings to enforce certain subpoenas (Closed Rule, 20 Minutes of Debate Possible Completion of H.R. 5972 - Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2013 (Open Rule) Postponed Amendment Votes (no more amendments may be offered to the bill): Rep. Marsha Blackburn Amendment Rep. Tom McClintock Amendment #13 Rep. James Lankford Amendment Rep. Jeff Denham Amendment Rep. Jeff Landry Amendment
Views: 323 CSPANHouse2012
House Session, Part 2
 
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Views: 36139 CSPANHouse2011