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Drugs that are most likely safe to take when breastfeeding
Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,alsfakia@gmail.com, https://plus.google.com/communities/115462130054650919641?sqinv=VFJWaER0c2NCRl9ERzRjZWhxQmhzY09kVV84cjRn , ,https://plus.google.com/u/0/+AlexandrosGSfakianakis , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQH21WX8Qn5YSTKrlJ3OrmQ , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTREJHxB6yt4Gaqs4-mLzDA , https://twitter.com/g_orl?lang=el, https://www.instagram.com/alexandrossfakianakis/, Little is known about how these medications affect a breastfeeding infant, but these drugs are most likely safe in typical doses. Any side effects will probably be mild. In rare cases, a baby might have an allergic reaction. Name of Drug (Brand Name) Use ACE inhibitors - Enalapril (Vasotec), Benazepril (Lotensin) Used to treat high blood pressure Anticholinergic agents (Pro-Banthine) Used to treat intestinal and gall bladder spasms; may reduce milk supply Anticonvulsants - Depakote, Dilantin, Tegretol (avoid ethosuximide, phenobarbital, and primidone) Used for seizures and mood disorders Antihistamines, First-generation - (Benadryl, Chlor-Trimeton) Used to reduce or prevent inflammation caused by an allergy Antituberculars (INH) Used to treat tuberculosis Azathioprine (low doses) - (Imuran) Used to suppress the immune system following organ transplants Barbiturates (except phenobarbital) - Fiorinal, Fioricet For sedation and tension headaches Bupropion (Wellbutrin) For depression Clindamycin (Cleocin) Used to treat abdominal and vaginal infections Oral decongestants (Sudafed, Entex PSE) Used to treat congestion associated with colds or allergies; often reduces milk supply Ergonovine (short course) Used to treat uterine bleeding. May reduce milk supply. Fluconazole (Diflucan) Antifungal Gadolinium (Magnevist, Omniscan) Contrast agent for MRI studies Histamine H2 blockers - Cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), nizatadine (Axid), and famotidine (Pepcid – preferred) Used to treat stomach problems Labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate) Used for high blood pressure; caution with preterm babies Hydrochlorothiazide (low doses) - (HydroDiuril) Diuretic for high blood pressure Lorazepam (Ativan) Used to treat anxiety Methimazole (apazole) Used for hyperthyroidism; less than 20 mg/day is probably safe Metoclopramide (Reglan) Used for gastrointestinal problems and to increase milk supply. Limit to 10 mg 3 times a day for 2 weeks. Midazolam Sedative used in anesthesia Naproxen (Naprosyn, Anaprox, Aleve) Used for pain relief; okay if baby is at least 1 month old Omeprazole (Prilosec) Used to treat stomach problems Oxazepam (Serax) Used to treat anxiety Paroxetine (Paxil) Used to treat depression Propofol (Diprivan) Sedative used in anesthesia Quinidine Used to treat heartbeat irregularities Quinolone antibacterials (Cipro and Levaquin; Noroxin is preferred) Treatment of urinary tract infections Salicylates (occasional use) - (aspirin) Used for pain relief Sertraline (Zoloft) Used to treat depression Spironolactone (Aldactone, Aldactazide) Used to treat high blood pressure Sumatriptan (Imitrex) Used to treat migraines Tetracyclines 14 days - (tetracycline, doxycycline) Used to treat acne and urinary tract infections Trazodone Used for depression and sleep Tricyclic antidepressants (avoid doxepin) -(Elavil, Tofranil, Pamelor) Used to treat depression; nortriptyline preferred Verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan) Used for high blood pressure - video upload powered by https://www.TunesToTube.com
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Vitamin B12 | Wikipedia audio article
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Vitamin B12 00:02:39 1 Chemistry 00:04:12 1.1 Vitamers 00:06:43 2 Dietary recommendations 00:10:05 3 Sources 00:10:28 3.1 Bacteria and archaea 00:11:41 3.2 Animals 00:12:31 3.3 Plants and algae 00:12:56 3.4 Fortified foods 00:13:27 3.5 Supplements 00:14:46 3.6 Parenteral administration 00:15:26 3.7 Pseudovitamin-Bsub12/sub 00:16:14 4 Biochemistry 00:16:23 4.1 Coenzyme function 00:20:22 4.2 Enzyme function 00:23:43 5 Physiology 00:23:53 5.1 Absorption 00:29:02 5.2 Storage and excretion 00:30:15 6 Deficiency 00:33:06 7 Medical uses 00:33:15 7.1 Repletion of deficiency 00:33:46 7.2 Cyanide poisoning 00:34:24 8 Drug interactions 00:34:33 8.1 Hsub2/sub-receptor antagonists and proton-pump inhibitors 00:35:44 8.2 Metformin 00:36:16 9 Industrial production 00:37:24 10 Laboratory synthesis 00:39:38 11 History Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is particularly important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin, and in the maturation of developing red blood cells in the bone marrow.Vitamin B12 is one of eight B vitamins; it is the largest and most structurally complicated vitamin. It consists of a class of chemically related compounds (vitamers), all of which show physiological activity. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt (chemical symbol Co) positioned in the center of a corrin ring. The only organisms to produce vitamin B12 are certain bacteria, and archaea. Some of these bacteria are found in the soil around the grasses that ruminants eat; they are taken into the animal, proliferate, form part of their gut flora, and continue to produce vitamin B12. There are no naturally occurring notable vegetable dietary sources of the vitamin, so vegans and vegetarians are advised to take a supplement or fortified foods. Otherwise, most omnivorous people in developed countries obtain enough vitamin B12 from consuming animal products including meat, milk, eggs, and fish. Staple foods, especially those that form part of a vegan diet, are often fortified by having the vitamin added to them. Vitamin B12 supplements are available in single agent or multivitamin tablets; and pharmaceutical preparations may be given by intramuscular injection. The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in developed countries is impaired absorption due to a loss of gastric intrinsic factor, which must be bound to food-source B12 in order for absorption to occur. Another group affected are those on long term antacid therapy, using proton pump inhibitors, H2 blockers or other antacids. This condition may be characterised by limb neuropathy or a blood disorder called pernicious anemia, a type of megaloblastic anemia. Folate levels in the individual may affect the course of pathological changes and symptomatology. Deficiency is more likely after age 60, and increases in incidence with advancing age. Dietary deficiency is very rare in developed countries due to access to dietary meat and fortified foods, but children in some regions of developing countries are at particular risk due to increased requirements during growth coupled with lack of access to dietary B12; adults in these regions are also at risk. Other causes of vitamin B12 deficiency are much less frequent.
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