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Islam and cats - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
02:37
The domestic cat is a revered animal in Islam. Admired for its cleanliness as well as for being loved by the prophet Muhammad, the cat is considered "the quintessential pet" by Muslims. Cats have been venerated in the Near East since antiquity, a tradition adopted by Islam, albeit in a much modified form. Muhammad is reported to have said that "a love of cats is an aspect of faith"; according to other hadiths, he prohibited the persecution and killing of cats. The prophet purportedly allowed a cat to give birth on his cloak, and cut off the sleeve of his prayer robe rather than wake his favourite cat, a female named Muezza, who was sleeping on it. One of Muhammad's companions was known as Abu Hurairah for his attachment to cats. Abu Hurairah claimed that he had heard the Prophet declare that a woman went to Hell for starving a female kitten and not providing her with any water, but this was disputed by the Prophet's widow Aisha. According to legend, Abu Hurairah's cat saved Muhammad from a snake. The grateful prophet stroked the cat's back and forehead, thus blessing all cats with the righting reflex. The stripes some cats have on their foreheads are believed to mark the touch of Muhammad's fingers. The American poet and travel author Bayard Taylor was astonished when he discovered a Syrian hospital where cats roamed freely. The institution, in which domestic felines were sheltered and nourished, was funded by a waqf, along with caretakers' wages, veterinary care and cat food. Edward William Lane , British Orientalist who resided in Cairo, described a cat garden originally endowed by the 13th-century Egyptian sultan Baibars, whose European contemporaries held a very different attitude towards cats, eating them or killing them under papal decrees. Aside from protecting granaries and food stores from pests, cats were valued by the paper-based Arab-Islamicate cultures for preying on mice that destroyed books. For that reason, cats are often depicted in paintings alongside Islamic scholars and bibliophiles. The medieval Egyptian zoologist Al-Damiri wrote that the first cat was created when God caused a lion to sneeze, after animals on Noah's Ark complained of mice. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam+and+cats, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Geological Survey of Pakistan - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "Geological Survey of Pakistan" , is an autonomous and independent institution under Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources which is tasked and mandate with advancing the geoscience knowledge and carrying out systematic studies on official mapping and area surveying. The scientists of GSP thoroughly studies the landscape of Pakistan, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. Apart from studying geology, it has various major science disciplines, concerning biology, engineering, hydrology, chemistry and physics. Due to its reputation and studies on fact-finding research, it has undertaken various efforts and studies on mineral exploration and extraction as well. Headquartered in Quetta, it has a main office in Islamabad and other regional offices in all over the country, and as of current, Dr. Imran Khan is the current and designated director-general of the Geological Survey of Pakistan. As early as 1836–51, the British crown government decided to set up the geological survey to explore the British Indian Empire under the British geologist David Williams who later founded the Geological Survey of India. After the independence of Pakistan from the British Indian Empire, the Geological Survey of India's north-west branch, staff and assets were evolved into creating to Geological Survey of Pakistan . At the time of its establishment, the GSP had consisted of only six geologist and two chemists under British scientist H.L. Crookshank, who was at that time was the most senior scientist working. Immediately, H.L. Crookshank was appointed first director general of GSP which he remained until 1955. Under Crookshank, the technical staff was increased to 30 geoscientists in 1948. In its formative years, the GSP did the pioneering work in hydrogeology and engineering but the efforts were transfer to engineering units of the military. In 1949–55, the GSP initiated a rigorous tradition of field investigations with the governmental support, and reconnaissance technology was transferred to GSP through the Colombo Plan. Due to these activities, it increased the operational, scientific capabilities, and expansion of facilities of the GSP by 1956; it became one of the pioneering scientific institution of the government. In 1955, English geologist, E.R. Gee, took over the GSP who initiated a massive expansion programme for GSP, including engineering, photogeology sections, as well as systematic publications journals were established. In 1959, the construction of new headquarters in Quetta was completed with Dr. N.M. Khan becoming first native GSP's director. By 1956, the GSP worked extremely close with the United States Geological Survey ; the USGS established multi-million dollar work laboratories and facilities in all over the country and cooperation continued until 1970. In 1957, the GSP discovered the large stockpiles of uranium in Sindh and Punjab. In addition, the GSP helped established country's universities to teach geoscience and engineering as part of their university programmes. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geological+Survey+of+Pakistan, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Dionne quintuplets - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "Dionne Quintuplets" are the first quintuplets known to have survived their infancy. The identical sisters were born in Canada, just outside Callander, Ontario, near the village of Corbeil. All five survived to adulthood. The Dionne girls were born two months premature. After four months with their family, they were made Wards of the King for the next nine years under the . The government and those around them began to profit by making them a significant tourist attraction in Ontario. The identical quintuplet sisters were, in order of birth: The Dionne family was headed by father Oliva-Edouard and mother Elzire Dionne , who married on September 15, 1925. They lived just outside of Corbeil, in a farmhouse in unregistered territory. Oliva, through his father, was a descendant of Zacharie Cloutier . The Dionnes were a French-speaking farming family with five older children, Ernest , Rose Marie , Thérèse , Daniel , and Pauline , who was only eleven months older than the quints. A sixth child, Léo , died of pneumonia shortly after birth. The Dionnes also had three sons after the quintuplets: Oliva Jr. , Victor , and Claude . Elzire suspected she was carrying twins, but no one was aware that quintuplets were even possible. The quintuplets were born two months premature. In 1938, the doctors had a theory that was later proven correct when genetic tests showed that the girls were identical and were created from a single egg cell. Elzire reported having had cramps in her third month and passing a strange object which may have been a sixth fetus. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dionne+quintuplets, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Albertosaurus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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""Albertosaurus"" is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived in western North America during the Late Cretaceous Period, about 70 million years ago. The type species, "A. sarcophagus", was apparently restricted in range to the modern-day Canadian province of Alberta, after which the genus is named. Scientists disagree on the content of the genus, with some recognizing "Gorgosaurus libratus" as a second species. As a tyrannosaurid, "Albertosaurus" was a bipedal predator with tiny, two-fingered hands and a massive head that had dozens of large, sharp teeth. It may have been at the top of the food chain in its local ecosystem. Although relatively large for a theropod, "Albertosaurus" was much smaller than its more famous relative "Tyrannosaurus", probably weighing less than 2 metric tons. Since the first discovery in 1884, fossils of more than 30 individuals have been recovered, providing scientists with a more detailed knowledge of "Albertosaurus" anatomy than is available for most other tyrannosaurids. The discovery of 26 individuals at one site provides evidence of pack behaviour and allows studies of ontogeny and population biology, which are impossible with lesser-known dinosaurs. "Albertosaurus" was smaller than some other tyrannosaurids, such as "Tarbosaurus" and "Tyrannosaurus". Typical "Albertosaurus" adults measured up to 9 m long, while rare individuals of great age could grow to be over 10 m long. Several independent mass estimates, obtained by different methods, suggest that an adult "Albertosaurus" weighed between 1.3 tonnes and 1.7 tonnes . Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albertosaurus, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Simon (cat) - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Simon" was the ship's cat who served on the Royal Navy sloop HMS "Amethyst". In 1949, during the Yangtze Incident, he received the PDSA's Dickin Medal after surviving injuries from a cannon shell, raising morale, and killing off a rat infestation during his service. Simon was found wandering the dockyards of Hong Kong in March 1948 by 17-year-old Ordinary Seaman George Hickinbottom, a member of the crew of the British frigate HMS "Amethyst" stationed in the city in the late 1940s. At this stage, it is thought Simon was approximately a year old, and was very undernourished and unwell. Hickinbottom smuggled the cat aboard ship, and Simon soon ingratiated himself with the crew and officers, particularly because he was adept at catching and killing rats on the lower decks. Simon rapidly gained a reputation for cheekiness, leaving presents of dead rats in sailors' beds, and sleeping in the captain's cap. The crew viewed Simon as a lucky mascot, and when the ship's commander changed later in 1948, the outgoing Ian Griffiths left the cat for his successor Lieutenant Commander Bernard Skinner, who took an immediate liking to the friendly animal. However, Skinner's first mission in command of the "Amethyst" was to travel up the Yangtze River to Nanjing to replace the duty ship there, HMS "Consort". Halfway up the river the ship became embroiled in the Yangtze incident, when Chinese Communist gun batteries opened fire on the frigate. One of the first rounds tore through the captain's cabin, seriously wounding Simon. Lieutenant Commander Skinner died of his wounds soon after the attack. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon+(cat), which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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mammals of West Virginia - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The state of West Virginia is home to 72 wild mammal species. Four – the Virginia big-eared bat, the Indiana bat, the West Virginia northern flying squirrel and the newly extinct eastern cougar – are federally listed as endangered. Several additional species are rare in the state and warrant close monitoring. Some mammals which have thrived despite human disturbance include the opossum, which is more abundant and more widely distributed due to human activities. Also doing well are mammals that prefer farm and early successional habitats. The coyote is expanding its range eastward in the United States and now occurs throughout the state. Many examples of West Virginia's present and former megafauna are on display at the West Virginia State Wildlife Center, a small zoo featuring native animals. The following letters indicate the likelihood of finding each animal in West Virginia: "Family Didelphidae " "Family Soricidae " "Family Talpidae " "Family Vespertilionidae " "Family Sciuridae " "Family Castoridae " "Family Dipodidae " "Family Cricetidae " "Family Muridae " "Family Erethizontidae " "Family Leporidae " "Family Canidae " "Family Ursidae " "Family Procyonidae " "Family Mustelidae " "Family Mephitidae " "Family Felidae " "Family Suidae " "Family Cervidae " "Family Bovidae " During colonial times, the black rat , Norway rat and house mouse all came to North America, including the future West Virginia, with European settlers and traders. Dogs, cats, pigs and goats that have wandered off or were abandoned have established or feral populations in portions of the state. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List+of+mammals+of+West+Virginia, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Calf 269 - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Calf 269" is a male calf that was rescued by anonymous 269life activists, days before its planned slaughter. He was born at an Israeli facility in the vicinity of Azor - a town on the outskirts of Tel Aviv. The slaughter was scheduled for June 2013. The calf is described as sweet-tempered and white-headed, and its ear carried a tag numbered 269, which indicated that the calf was destined for slaughter. The Israeli protests regarding the calf were followed by protests in England and other places across the world. The protests aimed at conveying that animal parts eaten as food by humans once belonged to a living individual, who lived a tortured life and faced a brutal death after which his carcass was processed into human feed. The significance of the event led to the creation of ""269 life"", an animal liberation movement founded on October 2012. On the occasion of World Farm Animals Day, 2 October 2012, two Israelis Zohar Gorelik and Sasha Boojor and one Russian activist Oleg Ozerov had the number 269 branded on their skin with a hot iron branding tool. Haaretz reports that this branding was an act of fellowship with Calf 269. The branding incident took place at Tel Aviv's Rabin square. The action is considered an attempt to bring to light the mistreatment of animals in the farming sector. According to Haaretz the treatment of animals would require terminologies applied to the Holocaust in order to adequately describe the situation. According Netta Ahituv writing in the Haaretz, the calf's story has inspired a world wide tattoo movement. At least a thousand individuals have had themselves branded or tattooed with the number 269. In a testimony a tattooed individual who was a tow truck driver narrated that the tattoo reminded one passenger of his grandmother's stories of German concentration camps. The website " " was created by Boojor following this protest. The protests were an attempt to end the anonymity of millions of animals butchered for human consumption. The website declares, "This anonymous male calf will be forever immortalized on our bodies, and hopefully this message of solidarity will somehow bring a new way of looking at non-human animals." Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calf+269, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Ceramic materials - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Ceramic materials" are inorganic, non-metallic materials made from compounds of a metal and a non metal. Ceramic materials may be crystalline or partly crystalline. They are formed by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Clay was one of the earliest materials used to produce ceramics, as pottery, but many different ceramic materials are now used in domestic, industrial and building products. Ceramic materials tend to be strong, stiff, brittle, chemically inert, and non-conductors of heat and electricity, but their properties vary widely. For example, porcelain is widely used to make electrical insulators, but some ceramic compounds are superconductors. A ceramic material may be defined as any inorganic crystalline material, compounded of a metal and a non-metal. It is solid and inert. Ceramic materials are brittle, hard, strong in compression, weak in shearing and tension. They withstand chemical erosion that occurs in an acidic or caustic environment. In many cases withstanding erosion from the acid and bases applied to it. Ceramics generally can withstand very high temperatures such as temperatures that range from 1,000 °C to 1,600 °C . Exceptions include inorganic materials that do not have oxygen such as silicon carbide. Glass by definition is not a ceramic because it is an amorphous solid . However, glass involves several steps of the ceramic process and its mechanical properties behave similarly to ceramic materials. Traditional ceramic raw materials include clay minerals such as kaolinite, more recent materials include aluminium oxide, more commonly known as alumina. The modern ceramic materials, which are classified as advanced ceramics, include silicon carbide and tungsten carbide. Both are valued for their abrasion resistance, and hence find use in corrosive environments such as the wear plates of crushing equipment in mining operations where other ceramic materials would not be suitable. Advanced ceramics are also used in the medicine, electrical, and aerospace industries. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceramic+materials, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Ornate box turtle - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "ornate box turtle" is one of only two terrestrial species of turtles native to the Great Plains of the United States. It is one of the two different subspecies of "Terrapene ornata". It is the state reptile of Kansas. It is a relatively small turtle, that is currently listed as threatened in Illinois but is of concern and protected in six Midwestern states . Males and females generally look alike but males are often smaller; there is color variation with yellow lines from the center of the shell to the edges through gray, red-brown, or black coloration. Besides the size, males can be distinguished from females in several ways; a large curved inner claw on the back feet, a cloacal opening that is farther back in males, a longer and thicker tail, and reddish color on the legs and occasionally on the jaw. The home range of the ornate box turtle covers a large area of the Midwest, from Wisconsin to the Gulf of Mexico and from Louisiana to Colorado. It was first discovered in Nebraska in 1795, where "vast numbers" were found. The turtle is usually found in grasslands and on land rather than in water; they have been found in all habitat types of the Great Plains except aquatic, though most references indicate they prefer open grass or prairie lands. Several studies indicate that the ornate box turtle needs three specific types of microhabitats in order to survive: # grass areas for feeding that have some free water # areas where females can nest and burrow into the soil to overwinter # sites for resting and thermoregulation where turtles can bury themselves in soil to protect themselves from extreme temperatures and to avoid dehydration in summer and eat their own eggs Water is important for this turtle to regulate body temperature in hot weather and to replace body water after hibernation, but they do not spend large amounts of time in flowing or standing water. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornate+box+turtle, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Dilophosaurus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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""Dilophosaurus"" ; is a genus of theropod dinosaur. It contains a single known species, ""Dilophosaurus wetherilli"", known from fossil remains found in the Kayenta formation of Arizona, USA. This rock formation has been dated to the early Jurassic Period , about 193 million years ago. "Dilophosaurus" was among the largest carnivores of its time and had a pair of rounded crests on its skull. "Dilophosaurus" measured around 7 m long and may have weighed 500 kg. The teeth of "Dilophosaurus" are long, but have a fairly small base and expand basally. "Dilophosaurus" had 12 maxillary teeth and as many as 18 dentary teeth; the teeth were smaller in the tip of the upper jaw. The second and third front teeth feature serrations, which are absent in the fourth. Another skull feature was a notch behind the first row of teeth, giving "Dilophosaurus" an almost crocodile-like appearance, similar to the putatively piscivorous spinosaurid dinosaurs. This "notch" existed by virtue of a weak connection between the premaxillary and maxillary bones of the skull. The braincase is well known in "Dilophosaurus", and is significant in that it bears a feature of the top side wall that is absent in ceratosaurians. Compared with ceratosaurians, the distal scapular expansion in "D. wetherilli" is uniquely rectangular. The upper leg bone is longer than the lower leg . A study by Gay comparing various specimens found no indication that sexual dimorphism was present in "Dilophosaurus", so males and females would have been largely the same in terms of skeletal anatomy. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dilophosaurus, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog" is a bobtailed, medium-sized breed of dog. The Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog was developed in Australia to herd cattle, and descends from crosses between European herding dogs and the Australian dingo. The Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog descended from Smithfield Cattle Dogs in England, which were brought to Australia in the early 19th century and crossed with the dingo. Records of working dogs are scarce from this time period, and there are several different accounts of the breed's development. One is that a drover named Timmins from Bathurst, New South Wales, crossed the Smithfield dogs with the dingo, producing a type of working dog called Timmin's Biters. In order to mute their dingo characteristics and make the dogs easier to handle, further crosses were made with Scottish smooth collies, producing speckled red and blue dogs that were often born tailless. In the book "A Dog Called Blue", author Noreen Clark makes the case that both the tailless Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog and the Australian Cattle Dog descended from the same stock, called Halls Heelers, kept in the 1830s by a very large cattle operation run by Thomas Hall. The dogs which were also crosses of Smithfield Cattle Dogs and dingo, but the breeds diverged at some point in the late 19th century. Selective breeding of the tailless or short tailed dogs has fixed the characteristic of today's breed. A summary of both versions of the breed's history is found in the Fédération Cynologique Internationale breed standard. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian+Stumpy+Tail+Cattle+Dog, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Metonic cycle - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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For astronomy and calendar studies, the "Metonic cycle" or "Enneadecaeteris" is a period of very close to 19 years that is remarkable for being nearly a common multiple of the solar year and the synodic month. The Greek astronomer Meton of Athens observed that a period of 19 years is almost exactly equal to 235 synodic months and, rounded to full days, counts 6,940 days. The difference between the two periods is only a few hours, depending on the definition of the year. Considering a year to be of this 6,940-day cycle gives a year length of 365 +  +  days , which is slightly more than 12 synodic months. To keep a 12-month lunar year in pace with the solar year, an intercalary 13th month would have to be added on seven occasions during the nineteen-year period . When Meton introduced the cycle around 432 BC, it was already known by Babylonian astronomers. A mechanical computation of the cycle is built into the Antikythera mechanism. The cycle was used in the Babylonian calendar, ancient Chinese calendar systems and the medieval computus . It regulates the 19-year cycle of intercalary months of the modern Hebrew calendar. At the time of Meton, axial precession had not yet been discovered, and he could not distinguish between sidereal years and tropical years . Most calendars, like the commonly used Gregorian calendar, are based on the tropical year and maintain the seasons at the same calendar times each year. Nineteen tropical years are about two hours shorter than 235 synodic months. The Metonic cycle's error is, therefore, one full day every 219 years, or 12.4 parts per million. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metonic+cycle, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Geomorphology - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Geomorphology" is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical or chemical processes operating at or near the earth's surface. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphology is practiced within physical geography, geology, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology and geotechnical engineering. This broad base of interests contributes to many research styles and interests within the field. The surface of the earth is modified by a combination of surface processes that sculpt landscapes, and geologic processes that cause tectonic uplift and subsidence, and shape the coastal geography. Surface processes comprise the action of water, wind, ice, fire, and living things on the surface of the earth, along with chemical reactions that form soils and alter material properties, the stability and rate of change of topography under the force of gravity, and other factors, such as human alteration of the landscape. Many of these factors are strongly mediated by climate. Geologic processes include the uplift of mountain ranges, the growth of volcanoes, isostatic changes in land surface elevation , and the formation of deep sedimentary basins where the surface of the earth drops and is filled with material eroded from other parts of the landscape. The earth surface and its topography therefore are an intersection of climatic, hydrologic, and biologic action with geologic processes, or alternatively stated, the intersection of the earth's lithosphere with its hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geomorphology, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Europium - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Europium" is a chemical element with symbol "Eu" and atomic number 63. It was discovered in 1901 and is named after the continent of Europe. It is a moderately hard, silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, europium usually assumes the oxidation state +3, but the oxidation state +2 is also common: all europium compounds with oxidation state +2 are slightly reducing. Europium has no significant biological role and is relatively non-toxic compared to other heavy metals. Most applications of europium exploit the phosphorescence of europium compounds. Europium is one of the least abundant elements in the universe, with only about % in the entire universe. Europium is a ductile metal with a hardness similar to that of lead. It crystallizes in a body-centered cubic lattice. Some properties of europium are strongly influenced by its half-filled electron shell. Europium has the second lowest melting point and the lowest density of all lanthanides. Europium becomes a superconductor when it is cooled below 1.8 K and compressed to above 80 GPa. This is because europium is divalent in the metallic state, and is converted into the trivalent state by the applied pressure. In the divalent state, the strong local magnetic moment suppresses the superconductivity, which is induced by eliminating this local moment . Europium is the most reactive rare earth element. It rapidly oxidizes in air, so that bulk oxidation of a centimeter-sized sample occurs within several days. Its reactivity with water is comparable to that of calcium, and the reaction is Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europium, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europium, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Lowland paca - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "lowland paca" , also known as the "spotted paca", is a large rodent found in tropical and sub-tropical America, from East-Central Mexico to Northern Argentina. It is called ""paca"" in most of its range, but ""tepezcuintle"" in most of Mexico and Central America, ""pisquinte"" in northern Costa Rica, ""jaleb"" in the Yucatán peninsula, ""conejo pintado"" in Panamá, ""guanta"" in Ecuador, ""majás"" or ""picuro"" in Peru, ""jochi pintado"" in Bolivia, and ""boruga"" or ""guardatinaja"" in Colombia. It is also known as the ""gibnut"" in Belize, where it is prized as a game animal, ""labba"" in Guyana, ""lapa"" in Venezuela, and ""lappe"" on the island of Trinidad. There is much confusion in the nomenclature of this and related species; see agouti. In particular, the popular term "agouti" or "common agouti" normally refers to species of the distinct "Dasyprocta" genus . Sometimes the word "agouti" is also used for a polyphyletic grouping uniting the families Cuniculidae and Dasyproctidae, which, besides the pacas and common agoutis, includes also the acouchis . "Cuniculus" is the appropriate genus name instead of "Agouti" based on a 1998 ruling of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature as the Lowland Paca's genus. The word "paca" comes from a word in the Tupi language that designates the animal but also means "awaken, alert." "Tepezcuintle" is of Nahuatl origin, meaning mountain dog: "tepetl" = mountain; "itzquintli" = dog. The lowland paca has coarse fur without underfur, dark brown to black on the upper body and white or yellowish on the underbelly. It usually has three to five rows of white spots along its sides, against a dark grey background. It has thick strong legs, with four digits in the forefeet and five in the hind feet ; the nails function as hooves. The tail is short and hairless. The zygomatic arch is expanded laterally and dorsally and is used as a resonating chamber - a unique feature among mammals. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lowland+paca, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Plasma actuator - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Plasma actuators" are a type of actuator currently being developed for aerodynamic flow control. Plasma actuators impart force in a similar way to ionocraft. The working of these actuators is based on the formation of a low-temperature plasma between a pair of asymmetric electrodes by application of a high-voltage AC signal across the electrodes. Consequently, air molecules from the air surrounding the electrodes are ionized, and are accelerated through the electric field. Plasma actuators operating at the atmospheric conditions are promising for flow control, mainly for their physical properties, such as the induced body force by a strong electric field and the generation of heat during an electric arc, and the simplicity of their constructions and placements. In particular, the recent invention of glow discharge plasma actuators by Roth that can produce sufficient quantities of glow discharge plasma in the atmosphere pressure air helps to yield an increase in flow control performance. Either a direct current or an alternating current power supply or a microwave microdischarge can be used for different configurations of plasma actuators. One schematic of an AC power supply design for a dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator is given here as an example. The performance of plasma actuators is determined by dielectric materials and power inputs, later is limited by the qualities of MOSFET or IGBT. The driving waveforms can be optimized to achieve a better actuation . However, a sinusoidal waveform may be more preferable for the simplicity in power supply construction. The additional benefit is the relatively less electromagnetic interference. Pulse width modulation can be adopted to instantaneously adjust the strength of actuation. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma+actuator, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma+actuator, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Abdomen - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Abdomen" constitutes the part of the body between the thorax and pelvis: in humans and in other vertebrates such as mammals. The region enclosed by the abdomen is termed the abdominal cavity. In arthropods it is the posterior tagma of the body; it follows the thorax or cephalothorax. Anatomically, the abdomen stretches from the thorax at the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvis at the pelvic brim. The pelvic brim stretches from the lumbosacral angle to the pubic symphysis and is the edge of the pelvic inlet. The space above this inlet and under the thoracic diaphragm is termed the abdominal cavity. The boundary of the abdominal cavity is the abdominal wall in the front and the peritoneal surface at the rear. The abdomen contains most of the tubelike organs of the digestive tract, as well as several solid organs. Hollow abdominal organs include the stomach, the small intestine, and the colon with its attached appendix. Organs such as the liver, its attached gallbladder, and the pancreas function in close association with the digestive tract and communicate with it via ducts. The spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands also lie within the abdomen, along with many blood vessels including the aorta and inferior vena cava. Anatomists may consider the urinary bladder, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries as either abdominal organs or as pelvic organs. Finally, the abdomen contains an extensive membrane called the peritoneum. A fold of peritoneum may completely cover certain organs, whereas it may cover only one side of organs that usually lie closer to the abdominal wall. Anatomists call the latter type of organs "retroperitoneal." Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdomen, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Fort Bridger - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Fort Bridger" was originally a 19th-century fur trading outpost established in 1842 on Blacks Fork of the Green River and later a vital resupply point for wagon trains on the Oregon Trail, California Trail and Mormon Trail. The Army established a military post here in 1858 during the Utah War until it was finally closed in 1890. A small town, Fort Bridger, Wyoming, remains near the fort and takes its name from it. The post was established by the mountain man Jim Bridger, after whom it is named, and Louis Vasquez. In 1845, Lanford Hastings published a guide entitled "The Emigrant's Guide to Oregon and California", which advised California emigrants to leave the Oregon Trail, at Fort Bridger, pass through the Wasatch Range, across the Great Salt Lake Desert, an 80-mile waterless drive, loop around the Ruby Mountains, and rejoin the California Trail about seven miles west of modern Elko . The ill-fated Donner Party followed that route, along which they were met by a rider sent by Hastings to deliver letters to traveling emigrants. On July 12, the Reeds and Donners were given one of these letters, in which among other messages, Hastings claimed to have "worked out a new and better road to California", and said he would be waiting at Fort Bridger to guide the emigrants along the new cutoff. With the arrival of the Mormon pioneers in 1847, disputes arose between Bridger and the new settlers. By 1853, a militia of Mormons was sent to arrest him for selling alcohol and firearms to the Native Americans, a violation of Federal Law. He escaped capture, temporarily returning to the East. Near the existing fort, the Mormons established their own Fort Supply the same year. In 1855, Mormons took over Fort Bridger, reportedly buying it from Bridger for $8,000 in gold coins. The Mormons claimed, over Bridger's denials, they had purchased the fort from Vasquez. There was a deed dated August 3, 1855, recorded October 21, 1858, in Salt Lake City in Records Book B. p. 128 that ostensibly sold Fort Bridger to the LDS Church. Bridger and Vasquez's name was signed by H. F. Morrell in the presence of Alinerin Grow and William Adams Hickman, purportedly pursuant to a power of attorney. Since Bridger was absent from the area in 1855, acting as guide for Sir St. George Gore, and absent a signed power of attorney from Bridger. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort+Bridger, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Evolution of the horse - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "evolution of the horse" occurred over a period of 50 million years, transforming the small, dog-sized, forest-dwelling "Eohippus" into the modern horse. Paleozoologists have been able to piece together a more complete outline of the evolutionary lineage of the modern horse than of any other animal. The horse belongs to the order Perissodactyla , the members of which all share hooved feet and an odd number of toes on each foot, as well as mobile upper lips and a similar tooth structure. This means that horses share a common ancestry with tapirs and rhinoceroses. The perissodactyls arose in the late Paleocene, less than 10 million years after the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. This group of animals appears to have been originally specialized for life in tropical forests, but whereas tapirs and, to some extent, rhinoceroses, retained their jungle specializations, modern horses are adapted to life on drier land, in the much harsher climatic conditions of the steppes. Other species of "Equus" are adapted to a variety of intermediate conditions. The early ancestors of the modern horse walked on several spread-out toes, an accommodation to life spent walking on the soft, moist grounds of primeval forests. As grass species began to appear and flourish, the equids' diets shifted from foliage to grasses, leading to larger and more durable teeth. At the same time, as the steppes began to appear, the horse's predecessors needed to be capable of greater speeds to outrun predators. This was attained through the lengthening of limbs and the lifting of some toes from the ground in such a way that the weight of the body was gradually placed on one of the longest toes, the third. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution+of+the+horse, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Early world maps - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The earliest known world maps date to classical antiquity, the oldest examples of the 6th to 5th centuries BC still based on the flat Earth paradigm. World maps assuming a spherical Earth first appear in the Hellenistic period. The developments of Greek geography during this time, notably by Eratosthenes and Posidonius culminated in the Roman era, with Ptolemy's world map , which would remain authoritative throughout the Middle Ages. Since Ptolemy, knowledge of the approximate size of the globe allowed cartographers to estimate the extent of their geographical knowledge, and to indicate parts of the globe known to exist but not yet explored as "terra incognita". With the Age of Discovery, during the 15th to 18th centuries, world maps became increasingly accurate; exploration of Antarctica and the interior of Africa was left to the 19th and early 20th century. A Babylonian world map, known as the "Imago Mundi", is commonly dated to the 6th century BCE. The map as reconstructed by Eckhard Unger shows Babylon on the Euphrates, surrounded by a circular landmass showing Assyria, Urartu and several cities, in turn surrounded by a "bitter river" , with seven islands arranged around it so as to form a seven-pointed star. The accompanying text mentions seven outer regions beyond the encircling ocean. The descriptions of five of them have survived: Anaximander is credited with having created one of the first maps of the world, which was circular in form and showed the known lands of the world grouped around the Aegean Sea at the center. This was all surrounded by the ocean. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early+world+maps, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Wilkes Land crater - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Wilkes Land crater" is an informal term that may apply to two separate cases of conjectured giant impact craters hidden beneath the ice cap of Wilkes Land, East Antarctica. These are separated below under the heading "Wilkes Land anomaly" and "Wilkes Land mascon ", based on terms used in their principal published reference sources. A giant impact crater beneath the Wilkes Land ice sheet was first proposed by R. A. Schmidt in 1962 on the basis of the seismic and gravity discovery of the feature made by the U.S. Victoria Land Traverse in 1959–60 , and the data provided to Schmidt by J. G. Weihaupt, geophysicist of the VLT . Schmidt further considered the possibility that it might be the elusive source of tektites from the Australasian strewnfield. The hypothesis was detailed in a paper by J. G. Weihaupt in 1976. Evidence cited included a large negative gravity anomaly coincident with a subglacial topographic depression 243 kilometers across and having a minimum depth of 848 meters. The claims were challenged by C. R. Bentley in 1979. On the basis of a 2010 paper by J. G. Weihaupt et al., Bentley's challenge was proven to be incorrect, and the Earth Impact Database has now reclassified the Wilkes Land Anomaly from a "possible impact crater" to a "probable impact crater" on the basis of Weihaupt et al.'s paper. Several other potential impact crater sites have now been proposed by other investigators in the Ross Sea, West Antarctica, and the Weddell Sea. The Wilkes Land mass concentration is centered at and was first reported at a conference in May 2006 by a team of researchers led by Ralph von Frese and Laramie Potts of Ohio State University. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilkes+Land+crater, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Carolina anole - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "Carolina anole" is an arboreal lizard found primarily in the southeastern United States and some Caribbean islands. Other common names include the "green anole", "American anole" and "red-throated anole". It is also sometimes referred to as the "American chameleon" due to its ability to change color from several brown hues to bright green . The Carolina anole is a small to medium-sized lizard, with a slender body. The head is long and pointed with ridges between the eyes and nostrils, and smaller ones on the top of the head. The toes have adhesive pads to facilitate climbing. They exhibit sexual dimorphism, the males being fifteen percent larger. The male dewlap is three times the size of the female's and red, whereas that of the female is white. Adult males are usually 12.5 - 20.3 cm long, with about 60-70% of which is made up of its tail, with a body length up to 7.5 cm and can weigh from 3 -. Colour varies from brown to green and can be changed like many other kinds of lizards, but anoles are closely related to iguanas and are not true chameleons. Although "A. carolinensis" is sometimes called an 'American chameleon', true chameleons do not occur in the Americas, and "A. carolinensis" is the only lizard in its area of distribution capable of changing colour. In contrast, many species of true chameleons display a greater range of colour adaptation, though some can hardly change colour at all. The typical coloration for a green anole ranges from the richest and brightest of greens to the darkest of browns, with little variation in between. The color spectrum is a result of three layers of pigment cells or chromatophores: the xanthophores, responsible for the yellow pigmentation; cyanophores, responsible for the blue pigmentation, and melanophores, responsible for the brown and black pigmentation when the background is other than green and the anole changes color to camouflage itself. In bright light, against foliage, it appears emerald in colour, but in shadier, cool or moist conditions grey to olive brown. However the colour change is not simply a matter of matching background, but rather body temperature, stress and activity. Green reflects activity and bright light, whereas brown reflects reduced activity in moist, dark cool conditions. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolina+anole, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Sundial - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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A "sundial" is a device that tells the time of day by the apparent position of the Sun in the sky. In common designs such as the horizontal sundial, the sun casts a shadow from its "style" onto a surface marked with lines indicating the hours of the day. The style is the time-telling edge of the "gnomon", often a thin rod or a sharp, straight edge. As the sun appears to move across the sky, the shadow-edge aligns with different hour-lines. Those sundials that directly measure the sun's hour-angle by the shadow of an edge must have that edge parallel to the axis of the Earth's rotation to tell the correct time throughout the year. The style's angle from the horizontal will thus equal the sundial's geographical latitude. It is common for inexpensive mass-produced decorative sundials to have incorrect hour angles, which cannot be adjusted to tell correct time. There are different types of sundials. Some sundials use a shadow or the edge of a shadow while others use a line or spot of light to indicate the time. The shadow-casting object, known as a "gnomon", may be a long thin rod, or other object with a sharp tip or a straight edge. Sundials employ many types of gnomon. The gnomon may be fixed or moved according to the season. It may be oriented vertically, horizontally, aligned with the Earth's axis, or oriented in an altogether different direction determined by mathematics. With sundials using light to indicate time, a line of light may be formed by allowing the sun's rays through a thin slit or focusing them through a cylindrical lens. A spot of light may be formed by allowing the sun's rays to pass through a small hole or by reflecting them from a small circular mirror. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sundial, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Maritime pilot - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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A "pilot" is a mariner who manoeuvres ships through dangerous or congested waters, such as harbors or river mouths, and completes the berthing / unberthing operation of the ships by controlling the ship's manoeuvrability directly and the tugs and shore linesmen through a radio. Pilots are expert shiphandlers who possess detailed knowledge of local waterways. They are transported by high speed pilot boats or helicopter from shore to an inbound ship and from an outbound ship back ashore. Most ports have compulsory pilotage. Legally, the master has full responsibility for safe navigation of his vessel, even if a pilot is on board. If he has clear grounds that the pilot may jeopardise the safety of navigation, he can relieve him from his duties and ask for another pilot or, if not compulsory to have a pilot on board, navigate the vessel without one. Only in transit of the Panama Canal does the pilot have the full responsibility for the navigation of the vessel. In English Law, Section 742 of the Merchant Shipping Act 1894 defines a pilot as "any person not belonging to a ship who has the conduct thereof." In other words, someone other than a member of the crew who has control over the speed, direction, and movement of the ship. The current United Kingdom legislation governing pilotage is the Pilotage Act 1987. Pilotage is one of the oldest professions, as old as sea travel, and it is one of the most important in maritime safety. The oldest "recorded" history dates back to about the 7th century BC. The economic and environmental risk from today's large cargo ships makes the role of the pilot essential. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maritime+pilot, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maritime+pilot, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Chronemics - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Chronemics" is the study of the role of time in communication. It is one of several subcategories of the study of nonverbal communication. Other prominent subcategories include haptics , kinesics , vocalics , and proxemics . Chronemics can be defined as "the interrelated observations and theories of man's use of time as a specialized elaboration of culture" - the way in which one perceives and values time, structures time, and reacts to time frames communication. Across cultures, time perception plays a large role in the nonverbal communication process. Time perceptions include punctuality, willingness to wait, and interactions. The use of time can affect lifestyle, daily agendas, speed of speech, movements, and how long people are willing to listen. Time can be used as an indicator of status. For example, in most companies the boss can interrupt progress to hold an impromptu meeting in the middle of the work day, yet the average worker would have to make an appointment to see the boss. The way in which different cultures perceive time can influence communication as well. Cultures are sometimes considered "monochronic" or "polychronic". A monochronic time system means that things are done one at a time and time is segmented into precise, small units. Under this system time is scheduled, arranged and managed. The United States is considered a monochronic society. This perception of time is learned and rooted in the Industrial Revolution, where "factory life required the labor force to be on hand and in place at an appointed hour" . For Americans, time is a precious resource not to be wasted or taken lightly. "We buy time, save time, spend time and make time. Our time can be broken down into years, months, days, hours, minutes, seconds and even milliseconds. We use time to structure both our daily lives and events that we are planning for the future. We have schedules that we must follow: appointments that we must go to at a certain time, classes that start and end at certain times, work schedules that start and end at certain times, and even our favorite TV shows, that start and end at a certain time.” Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronemics, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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March 1989 geomagnetic storm - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "March 1989 geomagnetic storm" was a severe geomagnetic storm that caused the collapse of Hydro-Québec's electricity transmission system. It occurred during solar cycle 22. The geomagnetic storm causing this event was itself the result of a coronal mass ejection on March 9, 1989. A few days before, on March 6, a very large X15-class solar flare also occurred. Three and a half days later, at 2:44 am EST on March 13, a severe geomagnetic storm struck Earth. The storm began on Earth with extremely intense auroras at the poles. The aurora could be seen as far south as Texas and Florida. As this occurred during the Cold War, an unknown number of people worried that a nuclear first-strike might be in progress. Others considered the intense auroras to be associated with the Space Shuttle mission STS-29, which had been launched on March 13 at 9:57:00 AM. The burst caused short-wave radio interference, including the disruption of radio signals from Radio Free Europe into Russia. It was initially believed that the signals had been jammed by the Soviet government. As midnight came and went, a river of charged particles and electrons in the ionosphere flowed from west to east, inducing powerful electrical currents in the ground that surged into many natural nooks and crannies. Some satellites in polar orbits lost control for several hours. GOES weather satellite communications were interrupted, causing weather images to be lost. NASA's TDRS-1 communication satellite recorded over 250 anomalies caused by the increased particles flowing into its sensitive electronics. The Space Shuttle Discovery was having its own problems: a sensor on one of the tanks supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell was showing unusually high pressure readings on March 13. The problem went away after the solar storm subsided. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March+1989+geomagnetic+storm, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March+1989+geomagnetic+storm, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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North Devon cattle - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "Devon" is an ancient breed of cattle from the south western English county of Devon. It is a rich red or tawny colour, and this gives rise to the popular appellation of "Devon Ruby" or "Red Ruby", also used as a marketing brand. The breed is also sometimes referred to as the "North Devon" to avoid confusion with the more recently developed South Devon cattle breed which is yellowish brown. The native home of the Devon is in southwest England, primarily in the counties of Devon, Somerset, Cornwall, and Dorset. The Devon is one of several modern breeds derived from the traditional red cattle of southern England, together with the Hereford, Sussex, Lincoln Red and Red Poll. The early improvers of the Devon breed were Francis Quartly of Great Champson, Molland, North Devon, and his elder brothers Rev. William and Henry , the eldest, who took over William's herd and lease in 1816. Francis had been left the lease of Champson with its herd by his father James and commenced his work in improving the breed the year after his father's death. At that time during the Napoleonic Wars most of the farmers of Devon were taking advantage of the high prices offered by butchers for cattle, and the best bloodlines of the old herds were almost lost. Francis Quartly had the foresight to refuse to sell his best specimens and furthermore determined on the risky and expensive strategy of outbidding the butchers to acquire for himself what he judged to be the best representatives of the remnant of the old breed. Thus was founded the Champson herd. Francis and William died unmarried but Henry's eldest son James succeeded him at West Molland and his youngest son John succeeded his uncle Francis at Champson. Both became highly distinguished breeders of Devons. Also instrumental in the founding of the new breed were John Tanner Davy of nearby Rose Ash and his brother William , of Flitton Barton. Colonel John Tanner Davy, son of John Tanner Davy, founded the Devon herdbook in 1850. In 1884, the Devon Cattle Breeders' Society was founded and took over the herdbook. Today the Dart family of Great Champson, Molland, long established in that parish, continues to breed the descendants of the Quartly herd in their original home. The herd was founded by George Dart in 1947 with animals purchased from the Molland herd, and is carried on today by the brothers William and Henry Dart. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North+Devon+cattle, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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HED meteorite - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"HED meteorites" are a clan of achondrite meteorites. HED stands for "howardite–eucrite–diogenite". These achondrites came from a differentiated parent body and experienced extensive igneous processing not much different from the magmatic rocks found on Earth and for this reason they closely resemble terrestrial igneous rocks. HED meteorites are broadly divided into: Several subgroups of both eucrites and diogenites have been found. The HED meteorites account for about 5% of all falls, which is about 60% of all achondrites. These are all thought to have originated from the crust of the asteroid 4 Vesta, their differences being due to different geologic histories of the parent rock. Their crystallization ages have been determined to be between 4.43 and 4.55 billion years from radioisotope ratios. HED meteorites are differentiated meteorites, which were created by igneous processes in the crust of their parent asteroid. It is thought that the method of transport from 4 Vesta to Earth is as follows: # An impact on 4 Vesta ejected debris, creating small V-type asteroids. Either the asteroidal chunks were ejected as such, or were formed from smaller debris. Some of these small asteroids formed the Vesta family, while others were scattered somewhat further. This event is thought to have happened less than 1 billion years ago. There is an enormous impact crater on 4 Vesta covering much of the southern hemisphere which is the best candidate for the site of this impact. The amount of rock that was excavated there is many times more than enough to account for all known V-type asteroids. # Some of the more far-flung asteroid debris ended up in the 3:1 Kirkwood gap. This is an unstable region due to strong perturbations by Jupiter, and asteroids which end up here get ejected onto far different orbits on a timescale of about 100 million years. Some of these bodies are perturbed into near-Earth orbits forming the small V-type near-Earth asteroids such as e.g. 3551 Verenia, 3908 Nyx, or 4055 Magellan. # Later smaller impacts on these near-Earth objects dislodged rock-sized meteorites, some of which later struck Earth. On the basis of cosmic ray exposure measurements, it is thought that most HED meteorites arose from several distinct impact events of this kind, and spent from about 6 million to 73 million years in space before striking the Earth. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HED+meteorite, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Alexander Selkirk - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Alexander Selkirk" , also known as "Alexander Selcraig", was a Scottish sailor who spent more than four years as a castaway after being marooned on an uninhabited island in the South Pacific Ocean . An unruly youth, Selkirk joined buccaneering expeditions to the South Sea, including one commanded by William Dampier, which called in for provisions at the Juan Fernández Islands off Chile. Selkirk judged correctly that his craft, the "Cinque Ports", was unseaworthy, and asked to be left there. By the time he was rescued, he had become adept at hunting and making use of the resources he found on the island. His story of survival was widely publicised when he returned home and became a likely source of inspiration for the writer Daniel Defoe's fictional character Robinson Crusoe. The son of a shoemaker and tanner in Lower Largo, Fife, Scotland, Alexander Selkirk was born in 1676. In his youth he displayed a quarrelsome and unruly disposition. Summoned in August 1693 before the Kirk Session for his "indecent conduct in church", he "did not appear, being gone to sea." He was back at Largo in 1701, when he again came to the attention of church authorities for beating up his brothers. Early on he was engaged in buccaneering. In 1703, he joined an expedition of the English privateer and explorer William Dampier to the South Sea, setting sail from Kinsale in Ireland on 11 September. They carried "letters of marque" from the Lord High Admiral authorising their armed merchant ships to attack foreign enemies, as the War of the Spanish Succession was then going on between England and France. While Dampier was captain of the "St George," Selkirk served on the "Cinque Ports", "St George"s companion, as sailing master under Captain Thomas Stradling. By this time Selkirk must have had considerable experience at sea. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander+Selkirk, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Plesiosauria - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "Plesiosauria" or "plesiosaurs" are an order or clade of Mesozoic marine reptiles , belonging to the Sauropterygia. Plesiosaurs first appeared in the latest Triassic Period, possibly in the Rhaetian stage, about 205 million years ago. They became especially common during the Jurassic Period, thriving until their disappearance due to the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous Period, about 66 million years ago. They had a worldwide oceanic distribution. Plesiosaurs were among the first fossil reptiles discovered. In the beginning of the nineteenth century, scientists realised how distinctive their build was and they were named as a separate order in 1835. The first plesiosaurian genus, the eponymous "Plesiosaurus", was named in 1821. Since then, more than a hundred valid species have been described. In the early twenty-first century, the number of discoveries has increased, leading to an improved understanding of their anatomy, relationships and way of life. Plesiosaurs had a broad flat body and a short tail. Their limbs had evolved into four long flippers, which were powered by strong muscles attached to wide bony plates formed by the shoulder girdle and the pelvis. The flippers made a flying movement through the water. Plesiosaurs breathed air, and bore live young; there are indications that they were warm-blooded. Plesiosaurs showed two main morphological types. Some species, with the "plesiosauromorph" build, had long necks and small heads; these were relatively slow and caught small sea animals. Other species, some of them reaching a length of up to seventeen metres, had the "pliosauromorph" build with a short neck and a large head; these were apex predators, fast hunters of large prey. The two types are related to the traditional strict division of the Plesiosauria into two suborders, the long-necked Plesiosauroidea and the short-neck Pliosauroidea. Modern research, however, indicates that several "long-necked" groups might have had some short-necked members or vice versa. Therefore the purely descriptive terms "plesiosauromorph" and "pliosauromorph" have been introduced, which do not imply a direct relationship. "Plesiosauroidea" and "Pliosauroidea" today have a more limited meaning. The term "plesiosaur" is properly used to refer to the Plesiosauria as a whole, but informally it is sometimes meant to indicate only the long-necked forms, the old Plesiosauroidea. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plesiosauria, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Oxytocin - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Oxytocin" is a nonapeptide hormone in mammals.  It is also available as a medication. Oxytocin is normally produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a role in intimacy, sexual reproduction of both sexes, and during and after childbirth as well as social bonding. It is released in large amounts after distension of the cervix and uterus during labor and with stimulation of the nipples following childbirth. This helps with birth, maternal bonding, and lactation. Studies have looked at oxytocin's role in various behaviors, including orgasm, social recognition, pair bonding, anxiety, and maternal behaviors. As a medication, it is used to cause contraction of the uterus, which is used to start labor, increase the speed of labor, and to stop bleeding following delivery. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medications needed in a basic health system. Oxytocin has peripheral actions, and also has actions in the brain. Its actions are mediated by specific, oxytocin receptors. The oxytocin receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor that requires magnesium and cholesterol. It belongs to the rhodopsin-type group of G-protein-coupled receptors. The peripheral actions of oxytocin mainly reflect secretion from the pituitary gland. Oxytocin secreted from the pituitary gland cannot re-enter the brain because of the blood–brain barrier. Instead, the behavioral effects of oxytocin are thought to reflect release from centrally projecting oxytocin neurons, different from those that project to the pituitary gland, or that are collaterals from them. Oxytocin receptors are expressed by neurons in many parts of the brain and spinal cord, including the amygdala, ventromedial hypothalamus, septum, nucleus accumbens, and brainstem. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxytocin, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Tachyon - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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A "tachyon" or "tachyonic particle" is a hypothetical particle that always moves faster than light. The word comes from the pronounced "tachy ", meaning rapid. It was coined in 1967 by Gerald Feinberg. The complementary particle types are called luxon and bradyon , which both exist. The possibility of particles moving faster than light was first proposed by O. M. P. Bilaniuk, V. K. Deshpande, and E. C. G. Sudarshan in 1962, although the term they used for it was "meta-particle". Most physicists think that faster-than-light particles cannot exist because they are not consistent with the known laws of physics. If such particles did exist, they could be used to build a tachyonic antitelephone and send signals faster than light, which would lead to violations of causality. Potentially consistent theories that allow faster-than-light particles include those that break Lorentz invariance, the symmetry underlying special relativity, so that the speed of light is not a barrier. In the 1967 paper that coined the term, Feinberg proposed that tachyonic particles could be quanta of a quantum field with negative squared mass. However, it was soon realized that excitations of such imaginary mass fields do "not" in fact propagate faster than light, and instead represent an instability known as tachyon condensation. Nevertheless, negative squared mass fields are commonly referred to as "tachyons", and in fact have come to play an important role in modern physics. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tachyon, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Magnetohydrodynamics - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Magnetohydrodynamics" is the study of the magnetic properties of electrically conducting fluids. Examples of such "magneto-fluids" include plasmas, liquid metals, and salt water or electrolytes. The word "magnetohydrodynamics " is derived from "magneto-" meaning magnetic field, "hydro-" meaning water, and "-dynamics" meaning movement. The field of MHD was initiated by Hannes Alfvén, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1970. The fundamental concept behind MHD is that magnetic fields can induce currents in a moving conductive fluid, which in turn polarizes the fluid and reciprocally changes the magnetic field itself. The set of equations that describe MHD are a combination of the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics and Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. These differential equations must be solved simultaneously, either analytically or numerically. The first recorded use of the word "magnetohydrodynamics" is by Hannes Alfvén in 1942: The ebbing salty water flowing past London's Waterloo Bridge interacts with the Earth's magnetic field to produce a potential difference between the two river-banks. Michael Faraday tried this experiment in 1832 but the current was too small to measure with the equipment at the time, and the river bed contributed to short-circuit the signal. However, by a similar process the voltage induced by the tide in the English Channel was measured in 1851. The simplest form of MHD, Ideal MHD, assumes that the fluid has so little resistivity that it can be treated as a perfect conductor. This is the limit of infinite magnetic Reynolds number. In ideal MHD, Lenz's law dictates that the fluid is in a sense "tied" to the magnetic field lines. To explain, in ideal MHD a small rope-like volume of fluid surrounding a field line will continue to lie along a magnetic field line, even as it is twisted and distorted by fluid flows in the system. This is sometimes referred to as the magnetic field lines being "frozen" in the fluid. The connection between magnetic field lines and fluid in ideal MHD fixes the topology of the magnetic field in the fluid—for example, if a set of magnetic field lines are tied into a knot, then they will remain so as long as the fluid/plasma has negligible resistivity. This difficulty in reconnecting magnetic field lines makes it possible to store energy by moving the fluid or the source of the magnetic field. The energy can then become available if the conditions for ideal MHD break down, allowing magnetic reconnection that releases the stored energy from the magnetic field. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetohydrodynamics, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetohydrodynamics, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Science, technology, society and environment education - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Science, technology, society and environment education", originates from the science technology and society movement in science education. This is an outlook on science education that emphasizes the teaching of scientific and technological developments in their cultural, economic, social and political contexts. In this view of science education, students are encouraged to engage in issues pertaining to the impact of science on everyday life and make responsible decisions about how to address such issues The STS movement has a long history in science education reform, and embraces a wide range of theories about the intersection between science, technology and society . Over the last twenty years, the work of Peter Fensham, the noted Australian science educator, is considered to have heavily contributed to reforms in science education. Fensham's efforts included giving greater prominence to STS in the school science curriculum . The key aim behind these efforts was to ensure the development of a broad-based science curriculum, embedded in the socio-political and cultural contexts in which it was formulated. From Fensham's point of view, this meant that students would engage with different viewpoints on issues concerning the impact of science and technology on everyday life. They would also understand the relevance of scientific discoveries, rather than just concentrate on learning scientific facts and theories that seemed distant from their realities . However, although the wheels of change in science education had been set in motion during the late 1970s, it was not until the 1980s that STS perspectives began to gain a serious footing in science curricula, in largely Western contexts . This occurred at a time when issues such as, animal testing, environmental pollution and the growing impact of technological innovation on social infrastructure, were beginning to raise ethical, moral, economic and political dilemmas . There were also concerns among communities of researchers, educators and governments pertaining to the general public's lack of understanding about the interface between science and society . In addition, alarmed by the poor state of scientific literacy among school students, science educators began to grapple with the quandary of how to prepare students to be informed and active citizens, as well as the scientists, medics and engineers of the future . Hence, STS advocates called for reforms in science education that would equip students to understand scientific developments in their cultural, economic, political and social contexts. This was considered important in making science accessible and meaningful to all students—and, most significantly, engaging them in real world issues . Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science%2c+technology%2c+society+and+environment+education, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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California grizzly bear - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "California grizzly" is an extinct subspecies of the grizzly, the very large North American brown bear. "Grizzly" refers to the golden and grey tips of its hair. Genetically, North American grizzlies are closely related; in size and coloring, the California grizzly was much like the grizzly of the southern coast of Alaska. In California, it was particularly admired for its beauty, size, and strength. Many accounts from pioneers describe grizzlies in long, bloody fights with angry longhorn bulls, and often winning. The grizzly became a symbol of the Bear Republic, the name that California had when it was an independent nation. Later this national flag became the state flag, and then California was known as the "Bear State." In 1866, a grizzly weighing 2200 pounds was killed in Valley Center, California, the biggest bear ever found in California, unsurpassed until John Lang shot the world's biggest bear — 2320 pounds — near his ranch by Canyon Country, in 1873. California still has habitat for about 500 grizzlies, and if the North Cascade population recovers and expands, eventually the grizzly will likely return to California. There are however only about 20 of these bears remaining in that ecosystem. In 2014 the US Fish and Wildlife Service received a petition to reintroduce the California grizzly. This reintroduction would be from its very closely related Rocky Mountain grizzly. Historically, all North American grizzlies were grouped together as one unique species until DNA testing revealed that they should properly be grouped taxonomically in the same species as the smaller, European brown bears. Thereafter, Californian grizzlies were re-classified in their own subspecies alongside the brown bear. Properly, all subspecies in North America are known as Grizzlies and until recently, the California Grizzly was classified "Ursus horribilis". Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California+grizzly+bear, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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433 Eros - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"433 Eros" is an S-type near-Earth asteroid approximately 34.4 * in size, the second-largest near-Earth asteroid after 1036 Ganymed. It was discovered in 1898 and was the first near-Earth asteroid discovered. It was the first asteroid orbited by an Earth probe . It belongs to the Amor group. Eros is a Mars-crosser asteroid, the first known to come within the orbit of Mars. Objects in such an orbit can remain there for only a few hundred million years before the orbit is perturbed by gravitational interactions. Dynamical integrations suggest that Eros may evolve into an Earth-crosser within as short an interval as two million years, and has a roughly 50% chance of doing so over a time scale of 10 8 –10 9 years. It is a potential Earth impactor, comparable in size to the impactor that created Chicxulub crater and led to the extinction of the dinosaurs. The NEAR Shoemaker probe visited Eros twice, first with a 1998 flyby, and then by orbiting it in 2000 when it extensively photographed its surface. On February 12, 2001, at the end of its mission, it landed on the asteroid's surface using its maneuvering jets. Eros is named after the Greek god of love, Erōs. It is pronounced or sometimes . The rarely used adjectival form of the name is "Erotian" . Surface gravity depends on the distance from a spot on the surface to the center of a body's mass. The Erotian surface gravity varies greatly, since Eros is not a sphere but an elongated peanut-shaped object. The daytime temperature on Eros can reach about 100 °C at perihelion. Nighttime measurements fall near −150 °C. Eros's density is 2.67 g/cm 3 , about the same as the density of Earth's crust. It rotates once every 5.27 hours. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/433+Eros, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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mammals of Trinidad and Tobago - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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This is a list of the "mammal species recorded in Trinidad and Tobago". These are the volant and terrestrial mammal species recorded for Trinidad and Tobago, and aquatic/marine species. Of these 0 are critically endangered, 0 are endangered, 1 is vulnerable, and 0 are near-threatened. However, it is very important to note that the populations of many of the game mammals as well as predatory mammals are locally threatened in Trinidad and Tobago due mainly to heavy hunting/poaching and habitat loss/fragmentation, with a number of species already having been extirpated on the island of Tobago. This list is derived from the IUCN Red List which lists species of mammals and includes those mammals that have recently been classified as extinct . The taxonomy and naming of the individual species is based on those used in existing Wikipedia articles as of 21 May 2007 and supplemented by the common names and taxonomy from the IUCN, Smithsonian Institution, or University of Michigan where no Wikipedia article was available. Species found in Tobago are indicated in brackets after their name, in total there are 20 bats and 16 non-volant terrestrial mammals recorded for Tobago. The following tags are used to highlight each species' conservation status as assessed by the IUCN: Some species were assessed using an earlier set of criteria. Species assessed using this system have the following instead of Near Threatened and Least Concern categories: ---- Sirenia is an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, estuaries, coastal marine waters, swamps, and marine wetlands. All four species are endangered. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List+of+mammals+of+Trinidad+and+Tobago, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Brown anole - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "brown anole" , also known as the "Bahaman anole" or "De la Sagra's Anole", is a lizard native to Cuba and the Bahamas. It has been widely introduced elsewhere, by being sold as a pet lizard, and is now found in Florida and as far north in the United States as southern Georgia, Texas, Hawaii, Southern California. It has also been introduced to other Caribbean islands and Taiwan in Asia. This species is highly invasive. In its introduced range, it reaches exceptionally high population densities, is capable of expanding its range very quickly, and both outcompetes and consumes many species of native lizards. The brown anole's introduction into the United States in the early 1970s has altered the behavior and triggered a negative effect on populations of the native Carolina anole , which have generally been relegated to the treetops. The brown anole is normally a light brown color with darker brown to black markings on its back, and several tan to light color lines on its sides. Like other anoles, it can change color, in this case a darker brown to black. Its dewlap ranges from yellow to orange-red. The males can grow as large as their green anole male counterparts, around 17.8 – long, with some individuals topping 22.9 cm. The females are also around the size of female green anoles: 7.6 –. The male brown anole's head is smaller than that of the male green anole. Also, the brown anole's tail has a ridge that travels all the way up to behind the head, a feature the green anole lacks. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown+anole, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Beryllium - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Beryllium" is a chemical element with symbol "Be" and atomic number 4. It is created through stellar nucleosynthesis and is a relatively rare element in the universe. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals. Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include beryl and chrysoberyl. As a free element it is a steel-gray, strong, lightweight and brittle alkaline earth metal. Beryllium improves many physical properties when added as an alloying element to aluminium, copper , iron and nickel. Tools made of beryllium copper alloys are strong and hard and do not create sparks when they strike a steel surface. In structural applications, the combination of high flexural rigidity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity and low density make beryllium metal a desirable aerospace material for aircraft components, missiles, spacecraft, and satellites. Because of its low density and atomic mass, beryllium is relatively transparent to X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation; therefore, it is the most common window material for X-ray equipment and components of particle physics experiments. The high thermal conductivities of beryllium and beryllium oxide have led to their use in thermal management applications. The commercial use of beryllium requires the use of appropriate dust control equipment and industrial controls at all times because of the toxicity of inhaled beryllium-containing dusts that can cause a chronic life-threatening allergic disease in some people called berylliosis. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beryllium, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Virchow–Robin space - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Virchow–Robin spaces" , also known as "perivascular spaces", are the immunological spaces between the arteries and veins and pia mater that can be expanded by leukocytes. The spaces are formed when large vessels take the pia mater with them when they dive deep into the brain. The pia mater is reflected from the surface of the brain onto the surface of blood vessels in the subarachnoid space. "Perivascular cuffs" are regions of leukocyte aggregation in VRS, usually found in patients with viral encephalitis. VRS are extremely small and can usually only be seen on MR images when dilated. While many normal brains will show a few dilated VRS, an increase in dilated VRS has been shown to correlate with the incidence of several neurodegenerative diseases, making the spaces a popular topic of research. The appearance of Virchow–Robin spaces was first noted in 1843 by Durand Fardel. In 1851, Rudolph Virchow was the first to provide a detailed description of these microscopic spaces between the outer and inner/middle lamina of the brain vessels. Charles-Philippe Robin confirmed these findings in 1859 and was the first to describe the perivascular spaces as channels that existed in normal anatomy. The immunological significance was discovered by Wilhelm His, Sr. in 1865 based on his observations of the flow of interstitial fluid over VRS to the lymphatic system. For many years after VRS were first described, it was thought that they were in free communication with the cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space. It was later shown with the use of electron microscopy that pia mater serves as separation between the two. Upon the application of MRI, measurements of the differences of signal intensity between VRS and cerebrospinal fluid supported these findings. As research technologies continued to expand, so too did information regarding the function, anatomy and clinical significance of VRS. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virchow%e2%80%93Robin+space, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Space Shuttle missions - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration . Its official program name was "Space Transportation System", taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development. The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982. From 1981 to 2011 a total of 135 missions were flown, launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. During that time the fleet totaled 1,322 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds of flight time. The longest orbital flight of the shuttle was STS-80 at 17 days 15 hours, while the shortest flight was STS-51-L at 1 minute 13 seconds, cut short when the space shuttle "Challenger" broke apart during launch. The shuttles docked with Russian space station "Mir" nine times and visited the ISS 37 times. The highest altitude achieved by the shuttle was 350 miles when servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. The program flew a total of 355 people representing 16 countries. The Kennedy Space Center served as the landing site for 78 missions while 54 missions landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California and one at White Sands, New Mexico. The first orbiter, "Enterprise", was built purely for atmospheric flight tests and had no orbital capability. Four full operational orbiters were initially built: "Columbia", "Challenger", "Discovery", and "Atlantis". "Challenger" and "Columbia" were destroyed in mission accidents in 1986 and 2003 respectively, killing a total of fourteen astronauts. A fifth operational orbiter, "Endeavour", was built in 1991 to replace "Challenger". The Space Shuttle was retired from service upon the conclusion of STS-135 by "Atlantis" on 21 July 2011. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List+of+Space+Shuttle+missions, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Falkland Islands wolf - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "Falkland Islands wolf" , also known as the "warrah" and occasionally as the "Falkland Islands dog", "Falkland Islands fox", or "Antarctic wolf", was the only native land mammal of the Falkland Islands. This endemic canid became extinct in 1876, the first known canid to have become extinct in historical times. It was the only modern species in the genus "Dusicyon". Traditionally it had been supposed that the most closely related genus was "Lycalopex", including the culpeo, which has been introduced to the Falkland Islands in modern times. However, in 2009, a cladistic analysis of DNA identified the Falkland Island wolf's closest living relative as the maned wolf —an unusually long-legged, fox-like South American canid, from which it separated about 6.7 million years ago. The Falkland Islands wolf existed on both West and East Falkland, but Charles Darwin was uncertain if they were differentiated varieties. Its fur had a tawny colour and the tip of the tail was white. Its diet is unknown, but, due to the absence of native rodents on the Falklands, probably consisted of ground-nesting birds such as geese and penguins, grubs and insects, as well as seashore scavenging. It has sometimes been said that it may have lived in burrows. The first recorded sighting was by Capt. John Strong in 1690. Captain Strong took one of the animals on his ship, but during the voyage back to Europe the creature became frightened by the firing of the ship's cannon and jumped overboard. Louis Antoine de Bougainville, who established the first settlement in the Falkland Islands termed it a "loup-renard" . The name "warrah" is a corruption of the term "aguará" , because of its similarity to the maned wolf The warrah's Latin name translates into "foolish dog of the south", because of its apparent lack of fear of people. When Charles Darwin visited the islands in 1833 he found the species present in both West and East Falkland and tame. However, at the time of his visit the animal was already very rare on East Falkland, and even on West Falkland its numbers were declining rapidly. By 1865, it was no longer found on the eastern part of East Falkland. He predicted that the animal would join the dodo among the extinct within "a very few years." It was hunted for its valuable fur, and the settlers, regarding the wolf as a threat to their sheep, poisoned it. However, the belief that Falkland Islands wolf was a threat to sheep was probably due to the sheep mistaking the Falkland Islands wolves for dogs , and, in terror, the sheep ran into bogs and swamps, where they became lost. There were no forests for the animal to hide in, and it had no fear of man; it was possible to lure the animal with a chunk of meat held in one hand, and kill it with a knife or stick held in the other. However, it would defend itself occasionally if it needed to, as Admiral George Grey noted when they landed on West Falkland at Port Edgar on December 17, 1836: Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland+Islands+wolf, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution", often abbreviated as "Air Pollution" or "CLRTAP", is intended to protect the human environment against air pollution and to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution. It is implemented by the "European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme ", directed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe . The convention opened for signature on 1979-11-13 and entered into force on 1983-03-16. The Convention, which now has 51 Parties, identifies the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe as its secretariat. The current parties to the Convention are shown on the map. The Convention is implemented by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme . Results of the EMEP programme are published on the EMEP website, . Since 1979 the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution has addressed some of the major environmental problems of the UNECE region through scientific collaboration and policy negotiation. The Convention has been extended by eight protocols that identify specific measures to be taken by Parties to cut their emissions of air pollutants: The aim of the Convention is that Parties shall endeavour to limit and, as far as possible, gradually reduce and prevent air pollution including long-range transboundary air pollution. Parties develop policies and strategies to combat the discharge of air pollutants through exchanges of information, consultation, research and monitoring. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convention+on+Long-Range+Transboundary+Air+Pollution, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Halobacterium salinarum - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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""Halobacterium salinarum"" is an extremely halophilic marine Gram-negative obligate aerobic archaeon. Despite its name, this microorganism is not a bacterium, but rather a member of the domain Archaea. It is found in salted fish, hides, hypersaline lakes, and salterns. As these salterns reach the minimum salinity limits for extreme halophiles, their waters become purple or reddish color due to the high densities of halophilic Archaea. "H. salinarum" has also been found in high-salt food such as salt pork, marine fish, and sausages. The ability of "H. salinarum" to survive at such high salt concentrations has led to its classification as an extremophile. Halobacteria are single-celled, rod-shaped microorganisms that are among the most ancient forms of life and appeared on Earth billions of years ago. . The membrane consists of a single lipid bilayer surrounded by an S-layer. The S-layer is made of a cell-surface glycoprotein, which accounts for approximately 50% of the cell surface proteins. These proteins form a lattice in the membrane. Sulfate residues are abundant on the glycan chains of the glycoprotein, giving it a negative charge. The negative charge is believed to stabilize the lattice in high-salt conditions. Amino acids are the main source of chemical energy for "H. salinarum", particularly arginine and aspartate, though they are able to metabolize other amino acids, as well. "H. salinarum" have been reported to not be able to grow on sugars, and therefore need to encode enzymes capable of performing gluconeogenesis to create sugars. Although "H. salinarum" is unable to catabolize glucose, the transcription factor TrmB has been proven to regulate the gluconeogenic production of sugars found on the S-layer glycoprotein. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halobacterium+salinarum, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Vanadium - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Vanadium" is a chemical element with symbol "V" and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery grey, ductile and malleable transition metal. The element is found only in chemically combined form in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation. Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in Mexico by analyzing a new lead-bearing mineral he called "brown lead," and presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named "erythronium" since, upon heating, most of its salts turned from their initial color to red. Four years later, however, he was convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium. Chlorides of vanadium were generated in 1830 by Nils Gabriel Sefström who thereby proved that a new element was involved, which he named "vanadium" after the Scandinavian goddess of beauty and fertility, Vanadís . Both names were attributed to the wide range of colors found in vanadium compounds. Del Rio's lead mineral was later renamed vanadinite for its vanadium content. In 1867 Henry Enfield Roscoe obtained the pure element. Vanadium occurs naturally in about 65 different minerals and in fossil fuel deposits. It is produced in China and Russia from steel smelter slag; other countries produce it either from the flue dust of heavy oil, or as a byproduct of uranium mining. It is mainly used to produce specialty steel alloys such as high-speed tool steels. The most important industrial vanadium compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanadium, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Finnsheep - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "Finnish Landrace" or "Finnsheep" is a breed of domestic sheep which has a high incidence of multiple births – it is common for a ewe to have three, four, or even five lambs at once. In North America, several instances of births of seven lambs have occurred, and the record in Finland is nine live lambs. The lambs are often small, but are vigorous at birth and grow well. The lambs mature early and can be mated at six months of age. Ewes commonly breed out of season and some may lamb twice in a year. The breed belongs to the group of Northern European short-tailed sheep, which also includes Shetland, Icelandic, Romanov, Spaelsau, and several other breeds. The Finnsheep is often used in crossbreeding programs to increase lambing percentage, and Finnsheep blood is found in many of the newer breeds. In the USA, the breed is promoted by the US Finnsheep Breeders Association. Finnsheep were first imported to North America by the University of Manitoba, Canada in 1966. While there is a range of wool fineness across individual Finnsheep, the American Sheep Industry’s Wool Council ranks Finnsheep in the fine end of the medium wool category. The wool has a soft handle, a moderate crimp and a high luster. Finnsheep have a similar range of fleece colors to that of Shetland and Icelandic sheep. White is genetically dominant and the most common color. Black and black/white piebald sheep are also fairly common, while brown, grey and fawn Finnsheep are very scarce in the USA. Markings such as white stockings, tail tips, white crown or facial markings including the panda-like eyespot pattern, are common in colored Finnsheep. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnsheep, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Terahertz metamaterials - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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""Terahertz metamaterials"" are a new class of composite; artificial materials still under development, which interact at terahertz frequencies. The terahertz frequency range used in materials research is usually defined as 0.1 to 10 THz. See: This bandwidth is also known as the "terahertz gap" because it is noticeably underutilized. This is because terahertz waves are electromagnetic waves with frequencies higher than microwaves but lower than infrared radiation and visible light. These characteristics mean that it is difficult to influence terahertz radiation with conventional electronic components and devices. Electronics technology controls the flow of electrons, and is well developed for microwaves and radio frequencies. Likewise, the terahertz gap also borders optical or photonic wavelengths; the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet ranges , where well developed lens technologies also exist. However, the terahertz wavelength, or frequency range, appears to be useful for security screening, medical imaging, wireless communications systems, non-destructive evaluation, and chemical identification, as well as submillimeter astronomy. Finally, as a non-ionizing radiation it does not have the risks inherent in X-ray screening. Currently, a fundamental lack in naturally occurring materials that allow for the desired electromagnetic response has led to constructing new artificial composite materials, termed metamaterials. The metamaterials are based on a lattice structure which mimics crystal structures. However, the lattice structure of this new material consists of rudimentary elements much larger than atoms or single molecules, but is an artificial, rather than a naturally occurring structure. Yet, the interaction achieved is below the dimensions of the terahertz radiation wave. In addition, the desired results are based on the resonant frequency of fabricated fundamental elements. The appeal and usefulness is derived from a resonant response that can be tailored for specific applications, and can be controlled electrically or optically. Or the response can be as a passive material. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terahertz+metamaterials, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terahertz+metamaterials, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Christa McAuliffe - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Sharon Christa Corrigan McAuliffe" was an American teacher from Concord, New Hampshire, and was one of the seven crew members killed in the Space Shuttle "Challenger" explosion. She received her bachelor's degree in education and history from Framingham State College in 1970, and also a master's in education supervision and administration from Bowie State University in 1978. She took a teaching position as a social studies teacher at Concord High School in New Hampshire in 1983. In 1985, she was selected from more than 11,000 applicants to participate in the NASA Teacher in Space Project and was scheduled to become the first teacher in space. As a member of mission STS-51-L, she was planning to conduct experiments and teach two lessons from Space Shuttle "Challenger". On January 28, 1986, the shuttle broke apart 73 seconds after launch. After her death, schools and scholarships were named in her honor, and in 2004 she was posthumously awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. McAuliffe was born Sharon Christa Corrigan on September 2, 1948, in Boston, Massachusetts. She was the eldest of the five children of accountant Edward Christopher Corrigan of Irish descent and Grace Mary Corrigan , a substitute teacher, whose father was of Lebanese Maronite descent. McAuliffe was a great niece of Lebanese-American historian Philip Khuri Hitti. She was known by her middle name from an early age, although in later years she signed her name "S. Christa Corrigan", and eventually "S. Christa McAuliffe". Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christa+McAuliffe, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Cave bear - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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The "cave bear" was a species of bear that lived in Europe during the Pleistocene and became extinct at the beginning of the Last Glacial Maximum, about 27,500 years ago. Both the name "cave" and the scientific name "spelaeus" are because fossils of this species were mostly found in caves, showing that cave bears may have spent more time in caves than the brown bear, which uses caves only for hibernation. Consequently, in the course of time, whole layers of bones, almost entire skeletons, were found in many caves. Cave bear skeletons were first described in 1774 by Johann Friederich Esper in his book "Newly Discovered Zoolites of Unknown Four Footed Animals". While scientists at the time considered that the skeletons could belong to apes, canids, felids, or even dragons or unicorns, Esper postulated that they actually belonged to polar bears. Twenty years later, Johann Christian Rosenmüller, an anatomist at the Leipzig University, gave the species its binomial name. The bones were so numerous, most researchers held little respect for them. During World War I, a large number of cave bear bones were used as a source of phosphates, leaving behind little more than skulls and leg bones. Many caves in Central Europe have skeletons of cave bears inside, for example the "Heinrichshöhle" in Hemer, the "Dechenhöhle" in Iserlohn, Germany. Complete skeleton, 5 complete skulls and 18 others was found inside Jaskinia Niedźwiedzia in 1966 located in Poland. In Romania, in a cave called Bears' Cave, 140 cave bear skeletons were discovered in 1983. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cave+bear, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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Personal digital assistant - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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A "personal digital assistant" , also known as a "handheld PC", or "personal data assistant", is a mobile device that functions as a personal information manager. The term evolved from Personal Desktop Assistant, a software term for an application that prompts or prods the user of a computer with suggestions or provides quick reference to contacts and other lists. PDAs were largely discontinued in the early 2010s after the widespread adoption of highly capable, in particular iOS and Android-based, smartphones. Nearly all PDAs have the ability to connect to the Internet. A PDA has an electronic visual display, enabling it to include a web browser, all models also have audio capabilities enabling use as a portable media player, and also enabling most of them to be used as mobile phones. Most PDAs can access the Internet, intranets or extranets via Wi-Fi or Wireless Wide Area Networks. Most PDAs employ touchscreen technology. The first PDA was released in 1984 by Psion, the Organizer. Followed by Psion's Series 3, in 1991, which began to resemble the more familiar PDA style. It also had a full keyboard. The term "PDA" was first used on January 7, 1992 by Apple Computer CEO John Sculley at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada, referring to the Apple Newton. In 1994, IBM introduced the first PDA with full mobile phone functionality, the IBM Simon, which can also be considered the first smartphone. Then in 1996, Nokia introduced a PDA with full mobile phone functionality, the 9000 Communicator, which became the world's best-selling PDA. The Communicator spawned a new category of PDAs: the "PDA phone", now called "smartphone". Another early entrant in this market was Palm, with a line of PDA products which began in March 1996. The terms "personal digital assistant" and "PDA" apply to smartphones but are not used in marketing, media, or general conversation to refer to devices such as the BlackBerry, iPad or iPhone. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal+digital+assistant, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
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